Trade Associations, Education, Labor, Professionalization, and Ethics

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Ames, William E., and Roger Simpson.  Unionism or Hearst?: The Seattle Post-Intelligencer Strike of 1936.  Seattle: Pacific Northwest Labor History Association, 1978.

Asher, Brad. “The Professional Vision: Conflicts Over Journalism Education, 1900-1950.”  American Journalism 11:4 (1994): 304-320. 

Baker, Elizabether F.  Printers and Technology: A History of the International Pressmen and Assistant’s Union.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1957.

Banning, Stephen A. “The Professionalization of Journalism: A Nineteenth Century Beginning.” Journalism History 24:4 (Winter 1998): 157-163.

Banning, Stephen A. “Truth is Our Ultimate Goal: A Mid-19th Century Concern for Journalism Ethics.” American Journalism 16:1 (1999): 17-39.

Banning, Stephen A.  “Fully Conscious of Their Power: Nineteenth-Century Michigan Editors Search for Journalistic Professionalism.” American Journalism 36:3 (Summer 2019): 371-394.   

Banning, Stephen A. “Courageous Performance: Examining Standards of Courage Among Small Town Investigative Reporters in the 1950s and 1960s.” American Journalism 17:2 (2000): 53-68.

Basconi, Mary Alice.  “Summer in the City, 1968-1974: Columbia University’s Minority Journalist Training Program.” Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 62-75.

Bates, Stephen.  “Is This the Best Philosophy Can Do? Henry R. Luce and A Free and Responsible Press.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 95:3 (Autumn 2018): 811-834.

Beasley, Maurine.  “The Women’s National Press Club: A Case Study in Professional Aspirations.”  Journalism History 15:4 (Winter 1988): 112-121.

Beasley, Maurine.  “Women in Journalism Education: The Formative Period, 1908-1930.”  Journalism History 13:1 (Spring 1986): 10-18.

Berner, R. Thomas.  “Unitypo: The ITU’s Editor and Publisher.”  American Journalism 2 (1985): 144-164.

Birkhead, Douglas.  “Presenting the Press: Journalism and the Professional Project.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1982.

Birkhead, Douglas.  “The Power in the Image: Professionalism and the Commercial Revolution.” American Journalism 1 (Winter 1984): 1-14.

Bjork, Ulf Jonas. “‘Scrupulous Integrity and Moderation’: The First International Organization for Journalists and the Promotion of Professional Behavior, 1894­1914.” American Journalism  22 (Winter 2005): 95­112.

Blanchard, Margaret A.  “Press Criticism and National Reform Movements: The Progressive Era and New Deal.” Journalism History 5 (Summer 1978): 33.

Bostrom, Bert N.  Talent, Truth, and Energy: Society of Professional Journalists.  Chicago: SPJ, 1984.

Boylan, James.  Pulitzer’s School: Columbia University’s School of Journalism, 1903-2003.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Brasch, Walter M.  With Just Cause:  The Unionization of the American Journalist.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1991.

Brennan, Bonnie. “The Emergence of Class Consciousness in the American Newspaper Guild.” In Class and News, edited by Don Heider, 233-47. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield, 2004.

Brogan, Patrick.  Spiked: The Short Life and Death of the National News Council.  New York: Priority Press, 1986.

Bronstein, Carolyn, and Stephen Vaughn.  “Willard G. Bleyer and the Relevance of Journalism Education.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 166 (June 1998).

Burt, Elizabeth V.  “A Bid for Legitimacy: The Women’s Press Club Movement, 1881-1900.” Journalism History 23:2 (Spring 1997): 72-84.

Cloud, Barbara.  “News: Public Service or Profitable Property?” American Journalism 13:2 (Spring 1996): 141-156.

Commission on Freedom of the Press.  A Free and Responsible Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947.

Cronin, Mary M.  “Trade Press Roles in Promoting Journalistic Professionalism, 1884-1917.”  Journal of Mass Media Ethics 8:4 (1993): 227-238.

Cronin, Mary M.  “Profits, Legitimacy, and Public Service: The Development of Ethics and Standards in New York City’s Newspapers, 1870-1920.”  PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, 1992.

Cronin, Mary M., and James B. McPherson.  “Pronouncements and Denunciations: An Analysis of State Press Association Ethics Codes from the 1920s.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (1995): 890-901.

Cookman, Claude H.  A Voice is Born: The Founding and Early Years of the National Press Photographers Association.  Durham, NC: National Press Photographers Association, 1985.

Dawson, Van B.  “The American Newspaper Guild and the Associated Press: A Study of Collective Bargaining Relations.”  MA thesis, Columbia University, 1950.

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel.  Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Digbey-Junger, Richard.  “The Main Rendezvous of Men for Men of the Press: The Life and Death of the Chicago Press Club, 1880-1987.”  Journal of Illinois History 1 (Winter 1998): 74-98.

Dooley, Patricia L.  Taking Their Place: Journalists and the Making of an Occupation.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Edmondson, Aimee, and Earnest L. Perry Jr.  “Objectivity and The Journalist’s Creed: Local Coverage of Lucile Bluford’s Fight to Enter the University of Missouri School of Journalism.” Journalism History 33:4 (Winter 2008): 233-240.

Emery, Edwin.  History of the American Newspaper Publishers’ Association.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.

Evansen, Bruce J.  “Journalism’s Struggle Over Ethics and Professionalism During America’s Jazz Age.”  Journalism History 16:3 (Summer 1990): 54-63.

Fedler, Fred.  “Exploring the Historical Image of Journalists as Heavy Drinkers from 1850-1950.”  American Journalism 14 (1997): 391-410.

Feighery, Glen.  “Two Visions of Responsibility: How National Commissions Contributed to Journalism Ethics, 1963-1975.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 11:2 (Summer 2009): 167-210.

Ferre, John P. “The Dubious Heritage of Media Ethics: Cause-and-Effect Criticism in the 1890s.” American Journalism5:4 (1988): 191-203.

Floyd, Nate.  “License to Spill: Credentialing in 20th Century Journalism Education.” Journal of 20th Century Media History 1:1 (2023): 30-45.

Folkerts, Jean.  “History of Journalism Education.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 16:4 (Winter 2014): 227-299.

Fox Pitts, Alicia.  Read All About It! 50 Years of ASNE.  American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1974.

Gajda, Amy.  “Judging Journalism: The Turn Toward Privacy and Judicial Regulation of the Press.”  California Law Review 97:4 (August 2009): 1039-1105.

Glander, Timothy R.  “Education and the Mass Media: The Origins of Mass Communication Research in the United States, 1935-1955.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1990.

Glende, Philip M. “Labor Makes the News: Newspapers, Journalism, and Organized Labor, 1933–1955.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin- Madison, 2010.

Glende, Philip M.  “We Used Every Effort to be Impartial: The Complicated Response of Newspaper Publishers to Unions.”  American Journalism 29:2 (Spring 2012): 37-65.

Glende, Philip M.  “Trouble on the Right, Trouble on the Left: The Early History of the American Newspaper Guild.”  Journalism History 38: 3 (Fall 2012): 142-155.

Good, Howard, and Michael J. Dillon.  Media Ethics Goes to the Movies.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Gottlieb, Agnes H.  “Networking in the Nineteenth Century: The Founding of the Woman’s Press Club of New York City.” Journalism History 21:4 (Winter 1995): 155-162.

Greuning, Ernest.  “Can Journalism be a Profession? A Study of Conflicting Tendencies.”  Century Magazine (September 1924): 687-702.

Hardt, Hanno and Bonnie Brennen, eds.  Newsworkers: Toward a History of the Rank and File.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.*

Jacobson, Sol.  “The Fourth Estate: A Study of the American Newspaper Guild.”  PhD dissertation, New School for Social Research, 1960.

Keith, Susan.  “Horseshoes, Stylebooks, Wheels, Poles, and Dummies: Objects of Editing Power in Twentieth-Century Newsrooms.” Journalism 16:1 (January 2015): 44-60.

Knight, Denise D. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Randolph Hearst, and the Practice of Ethical Journalism.” American Journalism 11, no. 4 (1994): 336–47.

Knowlton, Steven R., and Karen L. Freeman.  Fair and Balanced: A History of Journalistic Objectivity.  Northport, AL: Vision Press, 2005.

Kuczen, Sam.  “History of the American Newspaper Guild.” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1970.

Lakey, Thomas A.  The Morals of Newspapermaking.  Notre Dame: University Press, 1924.

Leab, Daniel K.  A Union of Individuals: The Formation of the American Newspaper Guild 1933-1936.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

Loupe, Diane E. “Storming and Defending the Color Barrier at the University of Missouri School of Journalism: The Lucie Bluford Case.” Journalism History 16:1/2 (Spring/Summer 1989): 20-31.

Mari, Will.  “Bright and Inviolate: Editorial-Business Divides in Early Twentieth-Century Journalism Textbooks.”  American Journalism 31:3 (Summer 2014): 378-399.

Mari, Will.  “Unionization in the American Newsroom, 1930 to 1960.”  Journal of Historical Sociology 31:1 (September 2018): 265-281.

McCaffrey, Raymond. “Stoicism and Courage as Journalistic Values: What Early Journalism Textbooks Taught about Newsroom Ethics.” American Journalism 36:2 (Spring 2019): 220-241.

Mellinger, Gwyneth.  “Members of the Club: A Genealogy of the American Society of Newspaper Editors’ Diversity Initiative.”  PhD dissertation, University of Kansas, 2006.

Mellinger, Gwyneth. “The ASNE and Desegregation: Maintaining the White Prerogative in the Face of Change.” Journalism History 34:3 (Fall 2008): 135-144.

Mellinger, Gwyneth.  “Conflicts of Interest in Journalism: Debating a Post-Hutchins Ethical Self-Consciousness.”  American Journalism 34:4 (Fall 2017): 386-406.

Mellinger, Gwyneth, and John P. Ferre, eds.  Journalism’s Ethical Progression: A Twentieth-Century Journey.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019.

Mirando, Joseph A.  “Journalism by the Book: An Interpretive Analysis of News Writing and Reporting Textbooks, 1867-1987.”  PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1992.

Mirando, Joe.  “Lessons on Ethics in News Reporting Textbooks, 1867-1997.”  Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (1998):  26-39.

Mirando, Joe.  “Embracing Objectivity Early On: Journalism Textbooks in the 1800s.”  Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16:1 (2001): 23-32.

Nemeth, Neil.  News Ombudsmen in North America: Assessing and Experiment in Social Responsibility.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.

Nerone, John C.  Last Rights: Revisiting Four Theories of the Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Nerone, John. “The Historical Roots of the Normative Model of Journalism.” Journalism 14 (May 2013): 446–458.

Osiel, Mark J.  “The Professionalization of Journalism: Impetus or Impediment to a Watchdog Press?”  Sociological Inquiry 56 (1986): 163-189.

Parks, Perry.  “Textbook News Values: Stable Concepts, Changing Voices.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 96:3 (Autumn 2019): 784-810.

Plaisance, Patrick Lee.  “The Gang of Pecksniffs Grows Up: The Evolution of Journalism Ethics Discourse in The Journalist and Editor and Publisher.”  Journalism Studies 6:4 (November 2005): 479-491.

Pratte, Paul A.  Gods Within the Machine: A History of the American Society of Newspaper Editors.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Pratte, Alf.  “But there are Miles to Go’: Racial Diversity and the American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1922-2000.”  Journal of Negro History 86:2 (Spring 2001): 160-179.

Ranley, Donald P.  “The Challengers: Social Pressures on the Press, 1965-1975.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri, 1975.

Rogers, Everett M., and Steven H. Chafee.  “Communication and Journalism from “Daddy” Blyer to Wilbur Schramm.”  Journalism Monographs 148 (December 1994).

Rodgers, Ronald R.  “An Untamed Force: Magazine and Trade Journal Criticism of the New Journalism and the Rise of Professional Standards, 1890s to 1920s.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 2005.   

Rodgers, Ronald R.  “Journalism is a Loose Jointed Thing’: A Content Analysis of Editor & Publisher’s Discussion of Journalistic Conduct Prior to the Canons of Journalism, 1900-1922.”   Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (April 2007): 66-82.

Rodgers, Ronald.  “The Social Awakening and the News: A Progressive Era Movement’s Influence on Journalism and Journalists’ Conceptions of Their Roles.” Journalism History 46:2 (June 2020): 81-105.  

Ruttenbeck, Jeffrey.  “The Triumph of News Over Ideas in American Journalism: The Trade Journal Debate.”  Journal of Communication Inquiry 18:1 (Winter 1994): 63-79.

Salcetti, Marianne. “Competing for Control of Newsworkers: Definitional Battles between the Newspaper Guild and the American Newspaper Publishers Association, 1937-1938.” PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1992.

Schacht, John N. The Making of Telephone Unionism, 1920-1947. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Scott, Dale Benjamin. “Labor’s New Deal for Journalism: The Newspaper Guild in the 1930s.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2009.

Seidel, Chalet.  “Representations of Journalistic Professionalism, 1865-1900.” PhD dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, 2010.

Shilen, Ronald.  “The Concept of Objectivity in Journalism in the United States.”  Phd dissertation, New York University, 1955.

Shorrock, William Joseph. “The American Newspaper Guild: A Study of Unionism among a Group of White-Collar Workers.” MA thesis, University of Chicago, 1946.

Simpson, Roger. “‘Our Single Remedy for All Ills’: The History of the Idea of a National Press Council.” American Journalism 12, no. 4 (1995): 477–495.

Sloan, Wm. David, ed.  Makers of the Media Mind: Journalism Educators and Their Ideas.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1990.

Solomon, William S.  “Newsroom Managers and Workers: The Specialization of Editing Work.”  American Journalism 10 (Winter-Spring 1993): 24-37.

Stanger, Howard.  “The Decline of a Cooperative, Union Controlled Grievance Procedure: The Case of the Columbus Typographical Union 1941-1992.” Labor Studies Journal 27:4 (Winter 2003): 37-58.

Stensaas, Harlan S.  “The Objective News Report: A Content Analysis of Selected U.S. Daily Newspapers for 1865 to 1954.”  Phd dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1987.

Sumpter, Randall S. “Learning the ‘Outsider’ Profession: Serial Advice Columns in The Journalist.” American Journalism 27:3 (2010): 7-26.

Sumpter, Randall.  “Core Knowledge: Early Reporting Textbooks and the Formation of Professional Identity.”  Journalism History 35:1 (Spring 2009): 42-51.

Sutton, Albert A.  Education for Journalism in the United States from Its Beginning to 1940.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1941.

Thornton, Brian. “Muckraking Journalists and Their Readers: Perceptions of Professionalism.” Journalism History 21:1 (Winter 1995): 29-41. 

Tracey, George A.  History of the Typographical Union.  Indianapolis: International Typographical Union, 1913.

Tuchman, Gaye. “Objectivity as Strategic Ritual: An Examination of Newsmen’s Notions of Objectivity.” American Journal of Sociology 77, no. 4 (January 1972): 660-679.

Vos, Tim P., and Teri Finneman.  “The Early Historical Construction of Journalism’s Gatekeeper Role.” Journalism 18:3 (2017): 265-280.

Ward, Henry H.  “Ninety Years of the National Newspaper Association: The Mind and Dynamics of Grassroots Journalism in Shaping America.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1977.

Watson, John C. “The First Amendment as License and Limitation: The Supreme Court Addresses Principles of Journalism Ethics (1947–2005).”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2006.

Weinberg, Steve.  A Journalism of Humanity: A Candid History of the World’s First Journalism School.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008.

Wilson, Christopher P.  The Labor of Words: Literary Professionalism in the Progressive Era.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.

Yarros, Victor S.  “Journalism, Ethics, and Common Sense.”  International Journal of Ethics 32:4 (July 1922): 410-419.

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