The Media and the Presidency

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Holzer, Harold.  The Presidents vs. The Press: The Endless Battle Between the White House and the Media.  New York: Dutton, 2020.

Marshall, Jon. Clash: Presidents and the Press in Times of Crisis. Lincoln: Potomac Books, 2022.

Pluta, Anne C.  Persuading the Public: The Evolution of Popular Presidential Communication from Washington to Trump.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2023.

Tebbel, John, and Sara Miles Watts.  The Press and the Presidency from George Washington to Ronald Reagan.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Thompson, Kenneth W.  Ten Presidents and the Press.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1983.

19th Century

Auerbach, Jonathan.  “McKinley at Home: How Early American Cinema Made News.” American Quarterly 51:4 (December 1999): 79-832.

Harper, Robert S. Lincoln and the Press.  New York: McGraw Hill, 1951.   

Harpine, William D.  From the Front Porch to the Front Page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1896 Presidential Campaign.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2005.

Kocher, Douglas J.  “Temporary Vilification: The Chicago Press and Chester Arthur, 1881.” Journalism History 9:2 (Summer 1982): 53-55, 60.

Laracy, Mel.  “The Presidential Newspaper: The Forgotten Way of Going Public,” in Richard J. Ellis, ed.  Speaking to the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective.   Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.  Pre-civil war

McKerns, Joseph P.  “Honest Rutherford Hayes Nurtured “Good Press.”  Media History Digest 13:1 (Spring-Summer 1993): 18-22.

Maihafer, Harry J. War of Words: Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War Press. Washington DC: Brassey’s, 2001.

Musser, Charles.  Politicking and Emergent Media: US Presidential Elections of the 1890s.  Berkeley: University of California Press. 2016.

Simon, John Y.  “Grant: Hero Falters as Reluctant President: The 18th President and the Press.”  Media History Digest 12:1 (Spring-Summer 1992): 27-31, 42.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  “William W. Price: First White House Correspondent and Emblem of an Era.” Journalism History 16 (1989): 32-41.

Tebbel, John, and Sara Miles Watts.  The Press and the Presidency from George Washington to Ronald Reagan.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

20th Century

Allen, Craig.  Eisenhower and the Mass Media: Peace, Prosperity, and Prime Time TV. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Barrett, David M. “The Bay of Pigs Fiasco and the Kennedy Administration’s Off-the-Record Briefings for Journalists.” Journal of Cold War Studies 21:2 (Spring 2019): 3-26.

Baughman, James L. “There Were Two Gerald Fords: John Hersey and Richard Reeves Profile a President.” American Literary History 24 (Fall 2012): 444–467.

Benson, Thomas W.  Writing JFK: Presidential Rhetoric and the Press in the Bay of Pigs Crisis.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2004.

Berkman, Dave.  “Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.” Journalism Quarterly 64: 2/3 (1987): 422-428.

Berry, Joseph P.  John F. Kennedy and the Media: The First Television President.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1987.

Best, Gary Dean. The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933-1938.   Westport, Conn.: Prager, 1993.

Blair, John L.  “Coolidge the Image Maker: The President and the Press, 1923-1929.”  The New England Quarterly 46:4 (December 1973): 499-522.

Bloom, Melvyn H.  Public Relations and Presidential Campaigns.  New York: Crowell, 1973.

Blum, John Morton.  Joe Tumulty and the Wilson Era.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

Brace, Paul, and Barbara Hinckley.  Follow the Leader: Opinion Polls and the Modern Presidents.  New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Brayman, Harold.  The President Speaks Off the Record: Historic Evenings with America’s Leaders, the Press, and other Men of Power at Washington’s Exclusive Gridiron Club.  Princeton: Dow Jones Books, 1976.

Brody, Richard A. Assessing the President: The Media, Elite Opinion, and Public Support.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

Brokaw, Tom.  The Fall of Richard Nixon: A Reporter Remembers Watergate.  New York: Random House, 2019.

Buckley, Kerry W.  “A President for the ‘Great Silent Majority’: Bruce Barton’s Construction of Calvin Coolidge.”  New England Quarterly  76 (Dec. 2003), 593­626.

Buhite, Russell D., and David W. Levy, eds.  FDR’s Fireside Chats.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Bustema, John C.  and Kathleen A. Hansen.  “Presidential Endorsement Patterns By Chain-Owned Papers, 1976-84.”  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990):286-94.

Cannon, Lou.  President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

Chase, Harold W., and Allen H. Lerman, eds.  Kennedy and the Press: The News Conferences.  New York: Crowell, 1965.

Clayman, Steven, Mark Elliott, John Heritage, and Megan Beckett.  “A Watershed in White House Journalism: Explaining the Post-1968 Rise of Aggressive Presidential News.”  Political Communication 27 (2010): 229-247.

Cormier, Frank, James Deakin, and Helen Thomas.  The White House Press on the Presidency.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1983.

Cornfield, Michael.  “The ‘First Rough Draft’?  Reflections on Presidential Politics, Journalism, and History.” Film & History 21: 2/3 (May/September1991): 77-82.

Cornwell Jr, Elmer E.  Presidential Leadership of Public Opinion.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965.

Cornwell, Elmer E., Jr.  “The Johnson Press Relations Style.”  Journalism Quarterly 43 (Spring 1966): 3-9.

Coyne, John R.   The Impudent Snobs: Agnew Vs. the Intellectual Establishment.  New York: Arlington House, 1972.

Cox Han, Lori.  Governing from Center Stage: White House Communication Strategies during the Television Age of Politics.  Creskill, N.J.: Hampton Press, 2001.

Crouse, Timothy. The Boys on the Bus: Riding With the Campaign Press Corps. New York: Random House, 1973.

Culbert, David.  “Television’s Nixon: The Politician and His Image,” in John E. O’Connor, ed.  American History, American Television: Interpreting the Video Past.  New York: Frederick Ungar, 1983.

Culbert, David.  “Johnson and the Media.” in Robert A. Divine, ed.  The Johnson Years, Volume 1.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1987.

Daniel, Douglas K.  “They Liked Ike: Pro-Eisenhower Publishers and his Decision to Run for President.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77:2 (Summer 2000): 393-404.

Deakin, James.  Straight Stuff: The Reporters, the White House, and the Truth.  New York: Morrow, 1984.

Deaver, Michael K.  Different Drummer: My Thirty Years with Ronald Reagan.  New York: Harper Collins, 2001.

Donaldson, Gary A.  The First Modern Campaign: Kennedy, Nixon, and the Election of 1960.  Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Donaldson, Sam.  Hold On, Mr. President.  New York: Random House, 1987.

Donovan, Hedley.  Roosevelt to Reagan: A Reporter’s Encounters with Nine Presidents.  New York: Harper and Row, 1985.

Druckman, James N., and Lawrence R. Jacobs.  Who Governs?  Presidents, Public Opinion, and Manipulation.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Dunn, Arthur Wallace.  From Harrison to Harding: A Personal Narrative Covering a Third of a Century, 1888-1921.  Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971.

Edwards, George.  The Public Presidency: The Pursuit of Popular Support.  New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.

Eisinger, Robert M.  The Evolution of Presidential Polling.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Elias, Katherine J.  “A Mutually Beneficial Relationship: John F. Kennedy, Network Television News, and Foreign Crises, 1961–1963.”  PhD dissertation, Rutgers University, 2004.  

Ellis, Richard J., ed.  Speaking to the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective.   Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.

Enriquez, Jonmikel.  “Theodore White and the Remaking of Political Journalism.”  PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1998.

Erikson, Robert S.  “The Influence of Newspaper Endorsements in Presidential Elections: The Case of 1964.” American Journal of Political Science 20:2 (May 1976): 207-233.

Evensen, Bruce J. “Following a Famous President: Truman’s Troubles With an Independent Minded Press.” American Journalism 12 (Summer 1995): 242-259.

Farrar, Ronald.  “Harry Truman and the Press: A View from the Inside.”  Journalism History 8:2 (Summer 1981): 56-62, 70.

Feiffer, Jules.  “LBJ in Caricature.”  Harper’s  (February 1968): 48-52.

Feldstein, Mark.  “Fighting Quakers: The 1950s Battle Between Richard Nixon and Drew Pearson.”  Journalism History 30:2 (Summer 2004): 76-90.

Feldstein, Mark.  Poisoning the Press: Richard Nixon, Jack Anderson, and the Rise of Washington’s Scandal Culture.  New York: FSG, 2010.

Ferrell, Robert H. ed.  Truman in the White House: The Diary of Eben A. Ayers.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991. (asst. press secretary)

Foote, Joe S.  Television Access and Political Power: The Networks, the Presidency, and the Loyal Opposition.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Freda, Isabelle. “Screening Biopolitics: The Presidential Campaign Film and Cold War Aesthetics.”  PhD dissertation, New York University, 2009.

Frick, Daniel.  Reinventing Richard Nixon: A Cultural History of an American Obsession.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Gergen, David.  Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership from Nixon to Clinton.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Gilens, M., L. Vavrek, and M. Cohen. “The Mass Media and the Public’s Assessments of Presidential Candidates, 1952–2000.”  Journal of Politics 69 (November 2007): 1160–1175.

Gold, Vic.  PR as in President.  New York: Doubleday, 1977.

Graham, James T. “Kennedy, Cuba and the Press.” Journalism History 24:2 (Spring 1998): 60-71. 

Greenberg, Bradley S., and Edwin B. Parker, eds.  The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.

Greenberg, David.  Republic of Spin: An Inside History of the American Presidency.  New York: W.W. Norton, 2015.

Grossman, Michael B., and Martha J. Kumar.  Portraying the President: The White House and the News Media.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Hart, Roderick P.  The Sound of Leadership: Presidential Communication in the Modern Age.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Hayden, Joseph.  Covering Clinton: The President and the Press in the 1990s.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.

Hayes, Joy Elizabeth.  “Did Herbert Hoover Deliver the First Fireside Chat?  Rethinking the Origins of Roosevelt’s Radio Genius.”  Journal of Radio Studies 7:1 (Spring 2000): 76-92.

Hertsgaard, Mark.  On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency. New York: FSG, 1988.

Hess, Stephen.  The Washington Reporters.  Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1981.

Hilderbrand, Robert C.  Power and the People: Executive Management of Public Opinion in Foreign Affairs, 1897-1921.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Holli, Melvin G.  The Wizard of Washington: Emil Hurja, Franklin Roosevelt, and the Birth of Public Opinion Polling.  New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Hughes, William J.  “The Not-so-Genial Conspiracy:  The New York Times and Six Presidential ‘Honeymoons.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (Winter 1995): 841-850.

Isikoff, Michael.  Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter’s Story.  New York: Crown, 1999.

Jeurgens, George.  News from the White House: The Presidential-Press Relationship in the Progressive Era.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Johnson, T. J.  “Exploring FDR’s Relationship with the Press: A Historical Agenda Setting Study.”  Political Communication 12:2 (April-June 1995): 157-172.

Jordan, Myron K. “Presidential Health Reporting: The Eisenhower Watershed.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 147–58.

Joynt Kumar, Martha.  Managing the President’s Message: The White House Communications Operation.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Keogh, James.  President Nixon and the Press.  New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1972.

Kearns Goodwin, Doris.  The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.

Kern, Montague, Patricia Levering, and Ralph B. Levering.  The Kennedy Crises: The Press, the Presidency, and Foreign Policy.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Kiewe, Amos.  FDR’s First Fireside Chat: Public Confidence and the Banking Crisis. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007.   

King, Andrew A., and Floyd Douglas Anderson, “Nixon, Agnew and the ‘Silent Majority’: A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Polarization.” Western Speech Communication 35 (Fall 1971): 243-255.

Klein, Herbert G.  Making it Perfectly Clear.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1980.  (Nixon)

Krock, Arthur.  “Mr. Kennedy’s Management of the News.” Fortune (March 1963): 82, 199-202.

Landecker, Manfred.  The President and Public Opinion.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1968.

Lang, Gladys E., and Kurt Lang.  The Battle for Public Opinion: The President, the Press, and the Polls During Watergate.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Lee, Mordecai.  The First Presidential Communications Agency: FDR’s Office of Government Reports.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

Lee, Mordecai.  “The President’s Listening Post: Nixon’s Failed Experiment in Government Public Relations.” Public Relations Review 38 (2012): 22-31.

Levine, Lawrence W., and Cornelia R. Levine.  The Fireside Conversations: America Responds to FDR During the Great Depression.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Lewis, David.  The Two Rhetorical Presidencies: An Analysis of Televised Presidential Speeches, 1947-1991.” American Politics Quarterly 25:3 (July 1997): 380-396.

Liebovich, Louis W.  The Press and the Modern Presidency: Myths and Mindsets from Kennedy to Clinton.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.

Lim, Elvin T.  “De-Mythologizing Franklin Roosevelt’s Fireside Chats.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 6 (Fall 2003): 437-464.

Lloyd, Craig.  Aggressive Introvert: A Study of Herbert Hoover and Public Relations Management, 1912-1932.  Columbus: Ohio State University, 1972.

Ludlow, Louis.  From Cornfield to Press Gallery: Adventures and Reminiscences of a Veteran Washington Correspondent.  Washington DC: W.F. Roberts, 1924.

Mann, Robert.  Daisy Petals and Mushroom Clouds: LBJ, Barry Goldwater, and the Ad That Changed American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

Minow, Newton N., John B. Martin, and Lee M. Mitchell.  Presidential Television.  New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Minow, Newton N., and Craig L. Lamay.  Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. 

Mitchell, Franklin D.  Harry S. Truman and the News Media. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1998.

Mueller, John E.  War, Presidents, and Public Opinion.  New York: Wiley, 1973.

Nacos, Brigitte L.  The Press, Presidents, and Crises.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.  (post-WWII)

Neeson, Ron.  It Sure Looks Different From the Inside.  New York: Playboy Press, 1978.  (Ford press aide)

Noonan, Peggy.  What I Saw at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era.  New York: Random House, 1990.

Osgood, Kenneth, and Andrew Frank, eds.  Selling War in a Media Age: The Presidency and Public Opinion in the American Century.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2010.  

Parry, Pam.  Eisenhower: The Public Relations President.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014.

Patterson, Thomas E.  Out of Order: How the Decline of Political Parties and the Growing Power of the New Media Undermine the American Way of Electing Presidents.  New York: Knopf, 1993.

Perry, Earnest.  “We Want In:  The African-American Press’s Negotiation for a White House Correspondent.”  American Journalism 20 (Summer 2003): 31-47.

Pollard, James E.  The Presidents and the Press.  New York: Macmillan, 1947.

Pollard, James E.  The Presidents and the Press: Truman to Johnson.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1964.

Ponder, Stephen.  “Presidential Publicity and Executive Power: Woodrow Wilson and the Centralization of Governmental Information.”  American Journalism 11:3 (Summer 1994): 257-269.

Ponder, Stephen. “That Delightful Relationship: Presidents and White House Correspondents in the 1920s.” American Journalism 14 (1997): 164–81.

Ponder, Stephen.  Managing the Press: Origins of the Media Presidency, 1897-1933. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.

Porter, William E.  Assault on the Media: The Nixon Years.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976.

Powledge, Fred.  The Engineering of Restraint: The Nixon Administration and the Press.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1971.

Pressman, Matthew.  “Ambivalent Accomplices: How the Press Handled FDR’s Disability and How FDR Handled the Press.” Journal of the Historical Society 13:3 (September 2013): 325-359.

Purvis, Hoyt, ed.  The Presidency and the Press.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976.

Raphael, Tim.  “The Body Electric: GE, TV, and the Reagan Brand.”  The Drama Review 53:2 (Summer 2009): 113-138.

Reinsch, K. Leonard.  Getting Elected: From Radio and Roosevelt to Television and Reagan.  New York: Hippocrene, 1988.

Ritchie, Donald A.  Reporting From Washington: The History of the Washington Press Corps.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Ritter, Kurt, and David Henry.  Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Roessner, Amber.  Jimmy Carter and the Birth of the Marathon Media Campaign.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2020.

Rosten, Leo C.  “President Roosevelt and the Washington Correspondents.”  Public Opinion Quarterly (January 1937): 36-52.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Carter Presidency.  Boulder, CO: Westview, 1989.

Rozell, Mark  “President Carter and the Press: Perspectives from White House Communications Advisors.”  Political Science Quarterly 105:3 (Fall 1990): 419-435.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Ford Presidency.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Rozell, Mark.  “Carter Rehabilitated: What Caused the 39th President’s Press Transformation.”  Presidential Studies Quarterly 23:2 (Spring 1993): 317-330.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Bush Presidency.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.

Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurts, eds.  Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2003.

Rubin, Richard L.  Press, Party, and Presidency.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1981.

Ryfe, David M.  “Franklin Roosevelt and the Fireside Chats.” Journal of Communication 49 (Autumn 1999): 80-103.

Ryfe, David M.  “From Media Audience to Media Public: A Study of Letters Written in Reaction to FDR’s Fireside Chats.” Media, Culture & Society 23 (November 2001): 767-781.

Sidey, Hugh.  John F. Kennedy, President: A Reporter’s Inside Story.  New York: Atheneum, 1963.

Sies, Dennis Ellsworth. “The Presidency and Television: A Study of Six Administrations.” PhD dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1978.

Slaybaugh, Douglas.  “Adlai Stevenson, Television, and the Presidential Campaign of 1956.”  Illinois Historical Journal 89 (Spring 1996): 3-16.

Smoller, Fredric T.  The Six O’Clock Presidency: A Theory of Presidential Press Relations in the Age of Television.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Speakes, Larry.  Speaking Out: The Reagan Presidency from Inside the White House.  New York: Scribner, 1988.

Spear, Joseph C. Presidents and the Press: The Nixon Legacy.  Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984.

Startt, James D.  Woodrow Wilson and the Press: Prelude to the Presidency.  New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.

Stein, M.L.  When Presidents Meet the Press.  New York: Julian Messner, 1969.

Stempel, Guido N.  “The Prestige Press Covers the 1960 Presidential Campaign.”  Journalism Quarterly 38 (Spring 1961): 157-163. 

Storm, Geoffrey.  “FDR and WGY: The Origins of the Fireside Chats.”  New York History 88 (Spring 2007): 177–197. 

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Theodore Roosevelt: Public Relations Pioneer: How TR Controlled Presidential Press Coverage.” American Journalism 7:2 (1990): 96-113.

Summers, John H.  “What Happened to Sex Scandals?  Politics and Peccadilloes, Jefferson to Kennedy.”  Journal of American History 87:3 (December 2000): 825-854.

Sweeney, Michael, Michael DiBari Jr., Edgar Simpson, and William Schulte. “President Ford’s Personal Watergate: The Undermining of the Public Sphere During the Mayaguez Incident.” American Journalism 36:4 (2019): 497-518.

Thompson, Kenneth W., ed.  Ten Presidents and the Press.  Charlottesville: Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, 1983.

Thompson, Kenneth W.  The White House Press on the Presidency: News Management and Co-option.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1983.

Tootle, Stephen Keith.  “Political Pundits, Conventional Wisdom, and Presidential Reputation.”  Phd dissertation, Ohio University, 2004.

Tudda, Chris.  The Truth Is Our Weapon: The Rhetorical Diplomacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Tulis, Jeffery K.  The Rhetorical Presidency.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Turner, Kathleen J. Lyndon Johnson’s Dual War: Vietnam and the Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.  

Unus, Wafa.  A Newsman in the Nixon White House: Herbert Klein and the Enduring Conflict Between Journalistic Truth and Presidential Image.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019.

Vaughn, Stephen. “Ronald Reagan and Freedom of Expression: From Liberal to Industry Spokesman, 1945-1952.” American Journalism 9: 3/4 (1992): 131-151.

Voth, Ben.  The Presidential Rhetoric of Woodrow Wilson, Warren Harding, and Calvin Coolidge.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2023.

Walter, Ashley, and Karlin Andersen Tuttle.  “All the President’s Media: How the Traditional Press Responded to New Communications Technology Adopted by US Presidents.” American Journalism 40:1 (2023): 4-25.

Western, Jon.  Selling Intervention and War: The Presidency, the Media, and the American Public.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.  

Whitaker, Wayne Richard.  “Warren Harding and the Press.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 1972.

White, Graham J.  FDR and the Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Williams, Herbert Lee.  The Newspaperman’s President: Harry S. Truman.  New York: Nelson-Hall, 1984.

Winfield, Betty H.  “The New Deal Publicity Operation: Foundation for the Modern Presidency.” Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 40-48, 218.

Winfield, Betty H.  FDR and the News Media, revised edition.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Wingate, Jennifer.  “Framing Race in Personal and Political Spaces: New Deal Photographs of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Domestic Settings.  Winterthur Portfolio 52: 3-4 (Summer/Autumn 2018): 137-166.

Winston, Diane.  Righting the American Dream: How the Media Mainstreamed Reagan’s Evangelical Vision.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2023.

Witcher, Russ.  After Watergate: Nixon and the Newsweeklies.  Lanham: University Press of America, 2000.

Wolfson, Lewis W., and James McCartney.  The Press Covers Government: The Nixon Years from 1969 to Watergate.  Washington DC: American University for the National Press Club.

Wolvin, Andrew D.  “The Blue Eagle Campaign: A Study in Persuasion and Coercion.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1968.

Press Secretaries/ News Conferences

Allen, Craig. “News Conferences on TV: Ike-Age Politics Revisited.” Journalism Quarterly 70:1 (Spring 1993): 13-25.

Anderson, Patrick.  The President’s Men.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.  (presidential aides, including press secretaries and speechwriters)

Beldon, Thomas M.  “Presidential Press Conferences as Richard Nixon Used Them.”  MA thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1974.

Boaz, John Knox. “The Presidential Press Conference.” PhD dissertation, Wayne State University, 1969.

Carpenter, Liz.  Ruffles and Flourishes.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1970.  (Lady Bird Johnson press secretary)

Casserly, John J.  The Ford White House: The Diary of a Speechwriter.  Boulder: Colorado University Press, 1977.

Cooper, Stephen L.  “A Rhetorical Assessment of Lyndon Johnson’s Presidential Press Conference.”  PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1972.

Cornwell, Jr., Elmer E.  “The Presidential Press Conference.” Midwest Journal of Political Science 4 (November 1960): 370-389.

Ferrell, Robert H., ed.  The Talkative President: The Off-the-Record Press Conferences of Calvin Coolidge.  New York: Garland, 1979.

French, Blaire Atherton.  The Presidential News Conference: Its History and Role in the American Political System.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1982.

Johnson, George W.  The Kennedy Presidential Press Conferences.  New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Johnson, George W.  The Nixon Presidential Press Conferences.  New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Johnson, George W.  The Johnson Presidential Press Conferences.  2 vols. New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Kyes, Elizabeth Anne.  “President Kennedy’s Press Conferences as “Shapers” of the News.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1968.

Levin, Linda Lotridge.  The Making of FDR: The Story of Stephen T. Early, America’s First Modern Press Secretary.  Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 2008. 

McGuire, Delbert.  “Democracy’s Confrontation: The Presidential Press Conference- I.”  Journalism Quarterly 44 (1967): 63-644.

McGuire, Delbert.  “Democracy’s Confrontation: The Presidential Press Conference- II.”  Journalism Quarterly 45 (1968): 31-41.

Magyar, Linda Feinfeld.  “The Evolution of Presidential Press Secretaries.”  Media History Digest 5:2 (Spring 1985): 2-9.

Martinelli, Diana Knott, and Jeff Mucciarone.  “New Deal Public Relations: A Glimpse into FDR Press Secretary Stephen Early’s Work.”  Public Relations Review 33 (2007): 49-57.

Moon, Gordon A.  “James Campbell Hagarty’s Eight Years in the White House.”  MA thesis, University of Washington, 1962.

Nelson, W. Dale.  Who Speaks for the President?  The White House Press Secretary from Cleveland to Clinton.  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998.

O’Donnell, Charles Francis.  Stephen Tyree Early: FDR’s Press Secretary.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

Ostman, Ronald E., William A. Babcock, and J. Cecilia Fallert. “Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy’s Press Conferences.” Journalism Quarterly 58:4 (1981): 575-581.

Ostman, Ronald E., and William A. Babcock.  “Three Major U.S. Newspapers’ Content and President Kennedy’s Press Conference Statements Regarding Space Exploration and Technology.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 13:1 (March 1983): 111-120.

Pollard, James E.  “The White House News Conference as a Channel of Communication.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 15:4 (Winter 1951-52): 663-678.

Powell, Jody, George Reedy, and Jerry terHorst.  Three Press Secretaries on the Presidency and the Press.  Ed. Kenneth W. Thompson.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.

Reedy, George E.  Lyndon Johnson, A Memoir.  New York: Andrews McMeel, 1982. (LBJ press secretary)

Salinger, Pierre. With Kennedy.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.  (JFK Press secretary)

Schoenherr, Steven E.  “Selling the New Deal: Stephen T. Early’s Role as Press Secretary to Franklin D. Roosevelt.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, 1976.

Sharp, Henry Wall.  “The Kennedy News Conferences.”  PhD dissertation, Purdue University, 1967.

Smith, Carolyn.  Presidential Press Conferences: A Critical Approach.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Spragans, William C., and Carol Ann Terwood.  From Spokesman to Press Secretary: White House Media Operations.  Washington DC: University Press of America, 1980.

Utegaard, Rolf William.  “Pierre Salinger’s Thousand Days.”  MA thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1967.

Presidential Campaigns/ Debates

Baughman, James L.  “Enlightened Pauses, Partial Withdrawals: American Historians and the Study of Presidential Campaigns.”  Mass Communication Review 14:1/2 (1987): 20-29.

Berkman, Dave.  “Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.”  Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 422-28. 

Campbell, W. Joseph.  Lost in a Gallup: Polling Failure in US Presidential Elections.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2020. 

Falk, Erika.  Women for President: Media Bias in Eight Campaigns.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Fordan, Robert C., and Todd M. Schaefer.  “An Overlooked Campaign Pioneer?  Thomas Dewey and Television in the 1950 New York Governor’s Race.”  New York History 100:2 (Winter 2019): 209-227.

Freda, Isabelle. “Screening Biopolitics: The Presidential Campaign Film and Cold War Aesthetics.”  PhD dissertation, New York University, 2009.

Friedenberg, Robert V., ed.  Rhetorical Studies of National Political Debates, 1960-1992. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Hofstetter, C. Richard.  “News Bias in the 1972 Campaign: A Cross-Media Comparison.”  Journalism Monographs 58 (November 1978).

Holitz, John E.  “Eisenhower and the Admen: The Television Spot Campaign of 1952.” Wisconsin Magazine of History 66 (1982): 25-39.

Graber, Doris.  “The Press as Opinion Resource during the 1968 Presidential Campaign.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 35:2 (Summer 1971): 168-182.

Jurdem, Laurence R.  “The Media Were Not Completely Fair To You: Foreign Policy, the Press, and the 1964 Goldwater Campaign.”  Journal of Arizona History 61:1 (Spring 2020): 161-180.

Khoo, Flora. “The Ideological Influence of Political Cartoons on the 1884 U.S. Presidential Race.” American Journalism 37:3 (2020): 372-396.

Kraus, Sidney.  The Great Debates: Background, Perspective, and Effects.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.

Kreger, Donald S.  “Press Opinion in the Eagleton Affair.”  Journalism Monographs 35 (August 1974).

Littlewood, Thomas B.  Calling Elections: The History of Horserace Journalism.  Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1998.

McGuinness, Joe.  The Selling of the President, 1968.  New York: Trident Press, 1969.

Morello, John A.  Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding.  Westport, Conn.: Prager, 2001.

Myers, David S.  “Editorials and Foreign Affairs in the 1968 Presidential Campaign.” Journalism Quarterly 47:1 (1970): 57-64.

Nicolaides, Becky M.  “Radio Electioneering in the American Presidential Campaigns of 1932 and 1936.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 8:2 (1988): 115-138.

Paletz, David L. “Delegates’ Views of TV Coverage of the 1968 Democratic Convention.”  Journal of Broadcasting. 16:4 (1972): 441-451.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J. “Southern Values and the Election of 1844 in South Carolina Newspapers.” Journalism History41:4 (2016): 200-210.

Rosessner, L. Amber, and Lindsey M. Bier. “Pardon Me, Mr. Carter: Amnesty and Unfinished Business of Vietnam in Jimmy Carter’s 1976 Campaign.” Journalism History 43:2 (2017): 86-96.

Salant, Richard S.  “The Television Debates: A Revolution That Deserves a Future.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 26:3 (Autumn 1962): 335-350.

Wood, Stephen C.  “Television’s First Spot Ad Campaign: Eisenhower Answers America.” Presidential Studies Quarterly20 (Spring 1990): 265-283.   

First Ladies

Beasley, Maurine. “Eleanor Roosevelt: First Lady as Radio Pioneer.” Journalism History 11:3 (Autumn-Winter 1984): 42-45.

Beasley, Maurine. “Eleanor Roosevelt’s Press Conferences: Symbolic Importance of a Pseudo Event.” Journalism Quarterly 61:2 (1984): 274-279.

Beasley, Maurine, and Paul Belgrade. “Media Coverage of a Silent Partner: Mamie Eisenhower as First Lady.” American Journalism 3:1 (1986): 39-49.

Beasley, Maureen H.  First Ladies and the Press: The Unfinished Partnership of the Media Age.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2005.   

Burns, Lisa M. “First Ladies as Political Women: Press Framing of Presidential Wives, 1900–2001.” PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2004.

Burns, Lisa. First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2008.

Burns, Lisa M., ed.  Media Relations and the Modern First Lady: From Jacqueline Kennedy to Melania Trump. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2022.

Gould, Lewis L.  “First Ladies and the Press: Bess Truman to Lady Bird Johnson.” American Journalism 1:1 (1983/1984): 47-62.

Witwer, David. “Westbrook Pegler, Eleanor Roosevelt, and the FBI: A History of Infamous Enmities and Unlikely Collaborations.” Journalism History 34:4 (Winter 2009): 194-203.

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