The Early Republic and the Rise of the Party Press in Antebellum America

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Abbott, Carl. Boosters and Businessmen: Popular Economic Thought and Urban Growth in the Antebellum Middle West. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Altschuler, Glenn C. Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Amar, Akhil Reed.  The Words That Made Us: America’s Constitutional Conversation, 1760-1840.  New York: Basic Books, 2021.

Ames, William E.  A History of the National Intelligencer.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1972.

Ames, William E.  “Federal Patronage and the Washington DC Press.” Journalism Quarterly 49 (Spring 1972): 22.

Anthony, Patrick R.  “Race and Republicanism in Philadelphia’s Aurora: How Anglophobia and Antimonarchism Shaped William Duane’s View on Revolutions in Saint-Dominique and Latin America, 1798-1822.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 141:1 (January 2017): 31-58.

Avery, Donald R.  “The Newspaper on the Eve of the War of 1812: Changes in Content Patterns, 1808-1812.” Ph.D. dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1982.

Avery, Donald R.  “American Over European Community? Newspaper Content Changes, 1808-1812.”  Journalism Quarterly 63:2 (Summer 1986): 311-314.

Axelrad, Jacob.  Philip Freneau: Champion of Democracy.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967.

Baker, Jean H.  Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in Mid-Nineteenth Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Baldasty, Gerald J. “The Washington DC Political Press in the Age of Jackson.” Journalism History 10 (Autumn 1983): 50-53, 68-73.

Baldasty, Gerald J.  “The Nineteenth Century Origins of Modern American Journalism.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 100, pt. 2 (1990): 407-419.

Basch, Norma.  “Marriage, Morals, and Politics in the Election of 1828.” Journal of American History 80 (December 1993): 890-918.

Bernhardt, Mark.  “Boys are Running Off to the War by Scores: Promoting Masculinity and Conquest in the Coverage of the Mexican-American War.”  American Journalism 33:2 (Spring 2016): 189-213.

Bird, Wendell.  Criminal Dissent: Prosecutions under the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2020.

Borchard, Gregory Alan.  “The Firm of Greeley, Weed, and Seward:  New York Partisanship and the Press, 1840-1860.”  PhD dissertation, University of Florida, 2003.

Borchard, Gregory.  “From Pink Lemonade to Salt River: Horace Greeley’s Utopia and the Death of the Whig Party.”  Journalism History 32:1 (Spring 2006): 22-33.

Borchard, Gregory.  “The New York Tribune and the 1844 Election.”  Journalism History 33:1 (Spring 2007): 51-59.

Bradburn, Douglas.  “A Clamor in the Public Mind: Opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts.”  William and Mary Quarterly 65:3 (July 2008): 565-600.

Bradley, Patricia.  “Forerunner of the ‘Dark Ages:’ Philadelphia’s Tradition of a Partisan Press.” American Journalism 13 (1996): 126-140.

Branson, Susan.  Dangerous to Know: Women, Crime, and Notoriety in the Early Republic.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Briceland, Alan V.  “The Philadelphia Aurora, the New England Illuminati, and the Election of 1800.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 50 (1976): 3-36.

Brigham, Clarence S.  History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820.  2 Volumes.  Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1947.

Brooke, John L.  “To Be Read by the Whole People:  Press, Party, and Public Sphere in the United States, 1789-1840.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 110: 1 (2002): 41-118.

Brown, Richard D. Knowledge is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Brown, Richard D. The Strength of the People: The Idea of an Informed Citizenry in America, 1650-1870.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Brown, Vicki Knasel.  “Commercial and Religious Press Coverage of the Mormon Struggle in Missouri, 1831-1838.”  Journalism History 45:3 (2019): 288-305.

Brown, Walt.  John Adams and the American Press.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1995.

Bucholz, Michael.  “Racial References in the Texas Press, 1813-1836.”  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 586-91.

Bunting, Thomas David.  “A Bible, an Ax, and a Tablet: Tocqueville’s Newspapers and Everyday Political Discourse.”  Perspectives on Political Science 46:4 (October-December 2017); 257-269.

Burns, Eric.  Infamous Scribblers: The Founding Fathers and the Rowdy Beginnings of American Journalism.  New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Campbell, Stephen. “Hickory Wind: The Role of Personality and the Press in Andrew Jackson’s Bank War in Missouri, 1831–1837.”  Missouri Historical Review 101 (April 2007): 146–67.

Campbell, Stephen W.  The Bank War and the Partisan Press: Newspapers, Financial Institutions, and the Post Office in Jacksonian America.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2019.

Capers, Corey N. “Black Voices/White Print: Race-Making, Print Politics, and the Rhetoric of Disorder in the Early National U.S. North, 1793–1824.”  PhD dissertation, University of California- Santa Cruz, 2006.   

Cassedy, James H.  “The Flourishing and Character of Early American Medical Journalism, 1797-1860.”  Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 38 (October 1983): 135-150.

Caudill, Edward, and Susan Caudill.  “Nation and Section: An Analysis of Key Symbols in the Antebellum Press.”  Journalism History 15:1 (Spring 1988): 16-25.

Cheathem, Mark R.  The Coming of Democracy: Presidential Campaigning in the Age of Jackson.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018

Clark, Mary Elizabeth.  Peter Porcupine in America: The Career of William Cobbett, 1792-1800.  Philadelphia: Times and News Co., 1939.

Cole, Donald B.  A Jackson Man: Amos Kendall and the Rise of American Democracy.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Cole, Jaci, and John Maxwell Hamilton.  “Another Test of the News: American Partisan Press Coverage of the French Revolution.” Journalism History 34:1 (Spring 2008): 34-41.

Conforti, Michael. “John Wilkes, the Wilkite Movement, and a Free Press in America.” Journalism History 43:1 (2017): 32-43.

Cooke, Jacob E.  Tench Coxe and the Early Republic.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.

Cordell, Ryan.  “Reprinting, Circulation, and the Network Author in Antebellum Newspapers.”  American Literary History 27:3 (Fall 2015): 417-445.

Cornell, Saul.  The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788-1828.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Cotlar, Seth.  “In Paine’s Absence: The Trans-Atlantic Dynamics of American Popular Political Thought, 1789-1804.”  PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, 2000.

Crane, Elaine F.  “Publius in the Provinces: Where Was the Federalist Reprinted Outside New York City?”  William and Mary Quarterly (1964): 589-

Crouthamel, James L.  James Watson Webb: A Biography.  Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.

Daley, Patrick. “Newspaper Competition and Public Spheres in New Hampshire in the Early National Period.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 11:1 (Spring 2009)4-65.

Daniel, Marcus L.  “Ribaldry and Billingsgate: Popular Journalism, Political Culture, and the Public Sphere in the Early Republic.”  PhD dissertation, Princeton University, 1998.

Daniel, Marcus.  Scandal and Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Day, John Kyle.  “The Federalist Press and Slavery in the Age of Jefferson.”  Historian 65:6 (2003): 1303-1329.

Demaree. Albert L.  The American Agricultural Press, 1819-1860.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.

Dierks, Konstantin.  In My Power: Letter Writing and Communications in Early America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Dooley, Patricia L.  The Early Republic: Primary Documents on the Events from 1799 to 1820.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Dowd, Gregory Evans.  Groundless: Rumors, Legends, and Hoaxes on the Early American Frontier.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.

Dowling, William C. Literary Federalism in the Age of Jefferson: Joseph Dennie and The Port Folio, 1801-1812. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.

Dury, Michael.  With the Hammer of Truth: James Thompson Callender and American Early National Heroes.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1990.

Dyer, Carolyn Stuart. “Census Manuscripts and Circulation Data for Mid-Nineteenth Century Newspapers.” Journalism History 7 (Summer 1980): 47-48, 67. 

Dyer, Carolyn Stuart. “Economic Dependence and Concentration of Ownership Among Antebellum Wisconsin Newspapers.” Journalism History 7 (Summer 1980): 42-46.

Dyer, Carolyn Stuart.  “Political Patronage of the Wisconsin Press, 1849-1860: New Perspectives on the Economics of Patronage.” Journalism Monographs, No. 109 (Feb. 1989).

Eastman, Carolyn.  “A Nation of Speechifiers: Oratory, Print, and the Making of a Gendered American Public, 1790-1830.”  PhD dissertation, John Hopkins, 2001.

Ekstrand, Victoria Smith, and Cassandra Imfeld Jeyaram. “Our Founding Anonymity: Anonymous Speech during the Constitutional Debate.” American Journalism 28 (Summer 2011): 35–60.

Elkins, Stanley, and Eric McKitrick.  The Age of Federalism.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Elliot, Emory.  Revolutionary Writers: Literature and Authority in the New Republic.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Engels, Jeremy. “Uncivil Speech: Invective and the Rhetorics of Democracy in the Early Republic.”  Quarterly Journal of Speech 95 (August 2009): 311–334.

Estes, Todd.  “Shaping the Politics of Public Opinion: Federalists and the Jay Treaty Debate.”  Journal of the Early Republic 20 (Fall 2000): 393-422.

Estes, Todd.  The Jay Treaty Debate, Public Opinion, and the Evolution of Early American Political Culture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2006. 

Estes, Todd. “The Voices of Publius and the Strategies of Persuasion in The Federalist,” Journal of the Early Republic 28 (Winter 2008): 523–558.

Farrell, James M., “Pretrial Publicity in 1830s Salem: Daniel Webster, New England News, and the Knapp-White Trial.” Journalism History 44:4 (Winter 2019): 232-240.

Fee, Frank E., Jr.  “To Exalt the Profession: Association, Ethics, and Editors in the Early Republic.”   American Journalism 31:3 (Summer 2014): 329-357.

Fehrling, John.  A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

First, Sarah Babcox. “The Mechanics of Renown; or, the Rise of a Celebrity Culture in Early America.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 2009. 

Formisano, Ronald P.  “The ‘Party Period’ Revisited.”  Journal of American History 86 (June 1999): 93-120.

Forsyth, David P.  The Business Press in America, 1750-1865.  Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1965.

Freeman, Joanne B.  Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Gabrial, Brian. “From Haiti to Nat Turner: Racial Panic Discourse during the Nineteenth Century Partisan Press Era.” American Journalism 30 (Summer 2013): 336–364.

Gasaway, John G. “Tippecanoe and the Party Press Too: Mass Communication, Politics, Culture, and the Fabled Presidential Campaign of 1840.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1999.

Gelmi, Caroline.  “The Pleasures of Merely Circulating: Sappho and Early American Newspaper Poetry.”  Nineteenth-Century Literature 69:2 (September 2014): 151-174.

Glicksberg, Charles I.  “William Cullen Bryant and American Journalism.” Journalism Quarterly 16:4 (December 1939): 356-365, 370.  (NY Post)

Gould, Philip. “Race, Commerce, and the Literature of Yellow Fever in Early National Philadelphia.” Early American Literature 35 (2000): 157-186.

Gross, Robert A.  “Printing, Politics, and the People.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 99 (1989): 375-396.

Grotta, Gerlald L.  “Philip Freneau’s Crusade for Open Sessions of the US Senate.”  Journalism Quarterly 48 (1971): 667-671.

Gunn, Giles, ed.  Early American Writing.  New York: Penguin, 1994.

Haberman, Robb K.  “Provincial Nationalism: Civil Rivalry in Postrevolutionary American Magazines.” Early American Studies 10:1 (Winter 2012): 175-184.

Hale, William Harlan.  “When Karl Marx Worked for Horace Greeley.”  American Heritage 8 (April 1957): 20-25, 110-111.

Hamilton, Milton W.  The Country Printer: New York State, 1785-1830.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1936.

Hawke, David F.  Everyday Life in Early America.  New York: Hill & Wang, 1988.

Hench, John B. “Massachusetts Printers and the Commonwealth’s Newspaper Advertisement Tax of 1785.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 87 (1977): 199-211.

Hench, John B.  “The Newspaper in the Republic: Boston’s Centinel and Chronicle.”  PhD dissertation, Clark University, 1979.

Henkin, David M. City Reading: Written Words and Public Spaces in Antebellum New York.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Horrocks, Thomas A. Popular Print and Popular Medicine: Almanacs and Health Advice in Early America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Humphrey, Carol Sue. “The Overlooked Legend: The Failure of the Media to Report on the Lewis and Clark Expedition.” American Journalism 21:3 (2004): 33-54.

Hurter, Stephanie R. “‘Pressing Their Voices’: The People, the Press, and the Growth of Participatory Politics in the State Ratifying Conventions for the U.S. Constitution, 1787–1788.”  PhD dissertation, George Mason University, 2010.

Hirsch, Jeffrey L.  “Tocqueville and the Frontier Press.” Journalism Quarterly 51 (1974): 116-119.

Hoffer, Peter Charles. The Free Press Crisis of 1800: Thomas Cooper’s Trial for Seditious Libel.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.

Holzer, Harold.  Lincoln and the Power of the Press: The War for Public Opinion.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.

Horrocks, Thomas A.  Popular Print and Popular Medicine: Almanacs and Health Advice in Early America.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Hume, Janice. “The Buccaneer as Cultural Metaphor: Pirate Coverage in Nineteenth-Century American Periodicals.” American Journalism19:1 (2002): 59-80.

Humphrey, Carol Sue. “That Bulwark of Our Liberties: Massachusetts Printers and the Issue of a Free Press, 1783-1788.” Journalism History 14:1 (Spring 1987): 34-38.

Humphrey,  Carol Sue.  The Press of the Young Republic, 1783-1833.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Hurter, Stephanie R. “‘Pressing Their Voices’: The People, the Press, and the Growth of Participatory Politics in the State Ratifying Conventions for the U.S. Constitution, 1787–1788.”  PhD dissertation, George Mason University, 2010. 

Johnson, Curtiss S.  Politics and a Belly-full: The Journalistic Career of William Cullen Bryant.  reprint edition.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974.  originally published in 1968.

Joyce, William L., ed.  Printing and Society in Early America.  Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1983.

Kaplan, Catherine.  “He Summons Genius…to His Aid: Letters, Partisanship, and the Making of the Farmer’s Weekly Museum, 1795-1800.”  Journal of the Early Republic 23:4 (Winter 2003): 545-571.

Katz, W. A.  “An Episode in Patronage: Federal Laws Published in the Newspapers.”  American Journal of Legal History 10 (July 1966): 214-223.  

Kesler, Charles R., ed.  Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding.  New York: Free Press, 1987.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  “Party Press Cohesiveness: Jacksonian Newspapers, 1832.”  Journalism Quarterly 60: 3 (Fall 1983): 518-521.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  “Modernization, Communication Policy, and the Geopolitics of News, 1820-1860.”  Critical Studies in Mass Communication 3 (1986): 21-35.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  News in the Mail: The Press, Post Office, and Public Information, 1700-1860s.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Knudson, Jerry W.  “Newspaper Reaction to the Louisiana Purchase: This New, Immense, Unbounded World.” Missouri Historical Review 63 (January 1969): 182-213.

Kovarik, Bill.  “To Avoid the Coming Storm: Hezekiah Niles’ Weekly Register as the Voice of North-South Moderation, 1811-1836.”  American Journalism 9 (Summer-Fall 1992): 20-43.

Lafferty, Ben P.  Small-Town News and Political Culture in Federalist New Hampshire.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2020.

Laracey, Mel.  “The Presidential Newspaper as an Engine of Early American Political Development: The Case of Thomas Jefferson and the Election of 1800.”  Rhetoric & Public Affairs 11:1 (Spring 2008): 7-46.

Laracey, Mel.  “The Impeachment of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase: New Perspectives from Thomas Jefferson’s Presidential Newspaper.”  Journal of Supreme Court History 40:3 (November 2015): 231-248.

Laracey, Mel.  Informing a Nation: The Newspaper Presidency of Thomas Jefferson.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2021.

Lee, So Hui.  “Pens of the Democratic Party: Nationalism, Politics, and Creative Literature in the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, 1837-1845.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 2002.

Leonard, Thomas C.  News For All: America’s Coming of Age with the Press.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Leonard, Thomas C.  The Power of the Press: The Birth of America Political Reporting.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Levermore, Charles H.  “The Rise of Metropolitan Journalism, 1800-1840.” American Historical Review 6:3 (April 1901): 446-465. 

Lienesch, Michael.  “Thomas Jefferson and the American Democratic Experience: The Origins of the Partisan Press, Popular Political Parties, and Public Opinion.” in Jeffersonian Legacies, Peter S. Onuf, ed.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

List, Karen A. “The Role of William Cobbett in Philadelphia’s Party Press, 1794-1799.” Journalism Monographs, No. 82 (1983).  See also, Karen A. List.  “The Role of William Cobbett in Philadelphia’s Party Press, 1794-1799.” PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1980.

List, Karen.  “The Post-Revolutionary Woman Idealized: Philadelphia Media’s Republican Mother.”  Journalism Quarterly 66 (1989): 65-75.

List, Karen. “Realities and Possibilities: The Lives of Women in Periodicals of the Early Republic.” American Journalism 11:1 (Winter 1994): 20-38.

Loughran, Trish. The Republic in Print: Print Culture in the Age of U.S. Nation Building, 1770–1870.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Maning, Richard H.  “Herald of the Albany Regency: Edwin Croswell and Albany Argus.” PhD dissertation, Miami University, 1983.

McCusker, John J. “The Demise of Distance: The Business Press and the Origins of the Information Revolution in the Early Modern Atlantic World.” American Historical Review 110 (April 2005): 295­321.

Miller, John Chester.  Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.

Mott, Frank Luther.  Jefferson and the Press.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1943.

Nerone, John.  The Culture of the Press in the Early Republic: Cincinnati, 1793-1848 .  New York: Garland Press, 1989.

Nicholls, Michael L. “‘Holy Insurrection’: Spinning the News of Gabriel’s Conspiracy.” Journal of Southern History 78 (February 2012): 37–68.

Nilsson, Nils G.  “The Origin of the Interview.” Journalism Quarterly 48:4 (Winter 1971): 707-713.

Nye, Russell B.  Fettered Freedom: Civil Liberties and the Slavery Question.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1949.

Olasky, Marvin.  “Hawks or Doves: Texas Press and Spanish-American War.”  Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 205-208.

Onuf, Peter S., Jan E. Lewis, and James Horn, eds.  The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.

Owens, Robert M.  “Law and Disorder North of the Ohio: Runaways and the Patriarchy of Print Culture, 1793-1815.”  Indiana Magazine of History 103:3 (September 2007): 265-289. 

Packer, Elizabeth M.  “This Time a Spectator: Philadelphia’s Printers Come to Terms with the French Revolution.”  MA thesis, Tufts University, 2013.  

Parcell, Lisa M.  “Early American Newswriting Style: Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How.” Journalism History 37 (Spring 2011): 2–11.

Pasley, Jeffrey L. “The Two National Gazettes: Newspapers and the Embodiment of American Political Parties.” Early American Literature 35:1 (2000): 51-86.

Pasley, Jeff.  The Tyranny of Printers: Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.

Pasley, Jeffrey L., Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds.  Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.*

Pasley, Jeffrey L. “From Print Shop to Congress and Back: Easton’s Thomas J. Rogers and the Rise of Newspaper Politics,” in Backcountry Crucibles: The Lehigh Valley from Settlement to Steel, ed. Jean R. Soderlund and Catherine S. Parzynski. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2008.

Perry, Seth. “Paine Detected in Mississippi: Slavery, Print Culture, and the Threat of Deism in the Early Republic.” William and Mary Quarterly 78:2 (April 2021): 313-338.

Pred, Allen R.  Urban Growth and the Circulation of Information in the United States System of Cities, 1790-1840.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Pretzer, William S.  “The British, Duff Green, the Rats and the Devil: Custom, Capitalism, and Conflict in the Washington Printing Trade, 1834-1836.”  Labor History 27:1 (1985-86): 5-30.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J.  “Political Papers and Presidential Campaigns in the Republic of Texas, 1836-1844.”  American Journalism 35:1 (Winter 2018): 50-76.

Prince, Carl E.  “The Federalist Party and the Creation of the Court Press, 1789-1801.”  Journalism Quarterly 53 (1976): 238-241.

Remer, Rosalind. Printers and Men of Capital: Philadelphia Book Publishers in the New Republic.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Reilly, Thomas W.  “American Reporters and the Mexican War, 1846-1848.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1975.

Reilly, Tom. “Newspaper Suppression During the Mexican War, 1846-48.” Journalism Quarterly 54:2 (1977): 262-270, 349.

Reilly, Tom. “The War Press of New Orleans: 1846-1848.” Journalism History 13:3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1986): 86-95.

Reitzel, William.  “William Cobbett and Philadelphia Journalism, 1794-1800.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History 59 (July 1935): 223-244.

Risley, Ford. “The President’s Editor: John W. Forney of the Press and Morning Chronicle.” American Journalism 26 (Fall 2009): 63–85.

Ritchie, Donald A. Press Gallery: The Rise of the Washington Correspondent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Robbins, Jan C.  “Jefferson and the Press: The Resolution of an Antinomy.” Journalism Quarterly 48:3 (1971): 421-430, 465.

Robertson, Andrew W.  “Look on This Picture…and On This!: Nationalism, Localism, and Partisan Images of Otherness in the United States, 1787-1820.” American Historical Review 106:4 (October 2001): 1263-1280.

Rosenfield, Richard.  American Aurora: A Democratic-Republican Returns.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.

Rowe, Adam.  The Republican Rhetoric of a Frontier Controversy: Newspapers in the Illinois Slavery Debate, 1823-1824.”  Journal of the Early Republic 31:4 (Winter 2011): 671-699.

Rowley, Karen M., and John Maxwell Hamilton.  “A Missing Link in the History of American War Correspondents: James Morgan Bradford and the Time Piece of St. Francisville, Louisiana.”  American Journalism 22:4 (Fall 2005): 7-26.  (War of 1812)

Ruttenbeck, Jeff.  “Partisan Press Coverage of Anti-Abolitionist Violence: A Study of Early Nineteenth-Century Newsflow.”  Journal of Communication Inquiry 19:1 (Spring 1995): 126-141.

Saxton, Alexander.  “Problems of Race and Class in the Origins of the Mass Circulation Press.”  American Quarterly 36 (1984): 211-234.

Scherr, Arthur.  “Vox Populi Versus the Patriot President: Bache’s Aurora and John Adams (1797).”  Pennsylvania History 62:4 (Fall 1995): 503-530.

Scherr, Arthur.  “Inventing the Patriot President: Bache’s Aurora and John Adams.”  Pennsylvania Magazine 119 (October 1995): 369-399.

Scherr, Arthur.  “Sambos” and “Black Cut-Throats”: Peter Porcupine on Slavery and Race in the 1790’s.”  American Periodicals 13 (2003): 3-30.

Scherr, Arthur.  “A Genuine Republican: Benjamin Franklin Bache’s Remarks (1797), The Federalists, and Republican Civic Humanism.” Pennsylvania History 80:2 (Spring 2013): 243-298.

Scherr, Arthur.  “To Alarm the Publick Mind: A Reexamination of Pamphlets and Newspapers in Philadelphia and the Early Republic.”  Pennsylvania History 83:3 (Summer 2016): 297-336.

Scherr, Arthur.  “John Taylor of Caroline: Pamphlets and the Press in the 1790s.”  American Periodicals 27:1 (2017): 53-72.

Scherr, Arthur. “Alexander Hamilton and the Sedition Act: A Founder’s Ambivalence on Freedom of the Press.” Journalism History 46:1 (2020): 50-73.

Scholnick, Robert J.  “The Ultraism of the Day: Greene’s Boston Post, Hawthorne, Fuller, Melville, Stowe, and Literary Journalism in Antebellum America.”  American Periodicals 18:2 (2008): 163-191.

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Scribner, Vaughn.  Inn Civility: Urban Taverns and Early American Civil Society.  New York: NYU Press, 2019.

Shaw, Donald L. “Change and Continuity in American Press News, 1820-1860.” Journalism History 8 (Summer 1981): 38-50.

Shaw, Donald L.  “News About Slavery from 1820-1860 in Newspapers of the South, North, and West.”  Journalism Quarterly 61 (Autumn 1984): 483-492.

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Shudson, Michael.  Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers.  New York: Basic Books, 1978.

Silver, Rollo G.  The American Printer, 1787-1825.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1967.

Singletary, Michael W.  “The New Editorial Voice for Andrew Jackson: Happenstance or Plan?”  Journalism Quarterly 53 (Winter 1976): 672-678.

Sloan, Wm. David. “The Party Press and Freedom of the Press, 1798–1808.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 82–96.

Sloan, Wm. David. “Purse and Pen: Party-Press Relationships, 1789-1816.” American Journalism 6 (1989): 103-127.

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Smith, Culver.  The Press, Politics and Patronage: The American Government’s Use of Newspapers 1789-1875. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1977.

Smith, James Morton.  “The Aurora and the Alien and Sedition Laws.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 77:1 (January 1953): 3-23 and 77:2 (April 1953): 123-155.

Smith, Jeffery A. “War as Monarchial Folly in the Early American Press.” American Journalism 10: 3/4 (1993): 83-97.

Smith, Kenneth L.  “Duff Green and the U.S. Telegraph, 1826-1837.”  PhD dissertation, William and Mary, 1981.

Smith, Steven Carl.  An Empire of Print: The New York Publishing Trade in the Early American Republic. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2017.

Smith, William.  The History of the Post Office in British North America, 1639-1870.  New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1973.

Snay, Mitchell.  “Horace Greeley’s New-Yorker: The Newspaper as Literary Institution in Jacksonian America.”  New York History 92:1/2 (Winter/Spring 2011): 41-51.

Steffen, Charles G.  “Newspapers for Free: The Economics of Newspaper Circulation in the Early Republic.”  Journal of the Early Republic 23 (Fall 2003): 381-419.

Stewart, Donald H.  The Opposition Press of the Federalist Period. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1969.

Stewart Robert K. “The Jackson Press and the Elections of 1824 and 1828.”  MA thesis, University of Washington, 1984.

Stewart, Robert K. “The Exchange System and the Development of American Politics in the 1820s.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 30–42.

Stewart, Robert K.  “Jacksonians Discipline a Party Editor: Economic Leverage and Political Exile.”  Journalism Quarterly 66 (August 1989): 591-599.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “The Nativist Press: Demonizing the American Immigrant.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 76:4 (Winter 1999): 673-683.

Swan, Patricia B., and James B. Swan.  “James W. Sheahan: Stephen A. Douglas Supporter and Partisan Chicago Journalist.”  Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 105: 2/3 (Summer/Fall 2012): 133-166.

Tagg, James D.  “Benjamin Franklin Bache’s Attack on George Washington.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100 (April 1976): 191-230. 

Tagg, James. Benjamin Franklin Bache and the Philadelphia Aurora. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

Taylor, Jordan E.  “The Reign of Error: North American Information Politics and the French Revolution, 1789-1795.”  Journal of the American Republic 39:3 (Fall 2019): 437-466.

Thwaites, R. G.  “The Ohio Valley Press Before the War of 1812-1815.” American Antiquarian Society Proceedings 19 (April 1909): 309-368.

Tirre, Daniel.  “Some Hideous Monster Come to Devour Them: Monsters in Early American Newspapers.”  New England Journal of History 73:2 (Spring 2017): 59-88.

Vigneaux, Danielle Marie. “Slaves in Print: Constructions of Race, Rebellion, and Criminality in Early America.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 2011.

Waldstreicher, David.  In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776-1820.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Watson, Harry L.  Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America. Rev. Ed.  New York: Hill and Wang, 2006.   Section on party newspapers

Young, Christopher J.  “Contests of Opinion: The Public Sphere in Post-Revolutionary America.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois Chicago, 2001.

Zboray, Ronald J. and Mary Saracino Zboray. “Political News and Female Readership in Antebellum Boston and its Region.”  Journalism History 22:1 (Winter 1996): 2-14. 

Zboray, Ronald J. and Mary Saracino Zboray, Everyday Ideas: Socio-literary Experience in Antebellum New England. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2006. 

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