Printing in the Colonial and Revolutionary Eras

Adelman, Joseph M. “‘A Constitutional Conveyance of Intelligence, Public and Private’: The Post Office, the Business of Printing, and the American Revolution.” Enterprise and Society 11 (December 2010): 709–752.

Adelman, Joseph M. “The Business of Politics: Printers and the Emergence of Political Communications Networks, 1765-1776.”  PhD dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 2010.

Adelman, Joseph M.  “Trans-Atlantic Migration and the Printing Trade in Revolutionary America.”  Early American Studies 11:3 (Fall 2013): 516-544.

Adelman, Joseph M.  Revolutionary Networks: the Business and Politics of Printing the News, 1763-1789.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2019.

Aldridge, A. Owen.  “Benjamin Franklin and the Pennsylvania Gazette”  Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106 (1962): 77-81.

Alexander, John K.  The Selling of the Constitutional Convention: A History of News Coverage.  Madison: Madison House, 1990.

Allen, Susan Macall. “The Impact of the Stamp Act of 1765 on Colonial American Printers: Threat or Bonanza?” PhD dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles,  1996.

Ashton, Jean.  “The Advent of Printing in New York: William Bradford and the Slow Growth of a Local Press.”  Biblion 7 (Fall 1998): 202-235.

Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1967.

Bailyn, Bernard, and John Hench, eds. The Press and the American Revolution.  Worcester, MA.: American Antiquarian Society, 1976.*

Baker, Ira L.  “Elizabeth Timothy: America’s First Woman Publisher.”  Journalism Quarterly 54 (1977): 280-285.

Barnes, Timothy M.  “The Loyalist Press in the American Revolution, 1765-1781.” PhD dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1970.

Barnes, Timothy M.  “Loyalist Newspapers of the American Revolution: A Bibliography.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 83 (1973): 217-240.

Barry, Heather E.  “So Many American Catos: John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon’s Works in 18th Century British America.”  PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Stony Brook, 2002.

Beasley, Maurine H.  “Pens, Petticoats, and Revolutionaries: Women and the Power of the Press.” Journal of Women’s History 20:3 (Fall 2008): 206-218.

Bell, David A., et al.  “AHR Forum: Creating National Identities in a Revolutionary Era.”  American Historical Review 106 (October 2001): 1214-1289.

Berger, Carl.  Broadsides and Bayonets: The Propaganda War of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976.

Berthold, Arthur B.  American Colonial Printing as Determined by Contemporary Cultural Forces, 1639-1763.  New York: Franklin, 1970.

Bickham, Troy O.  “Sympathizing with Sedition: George Washington, the British Press, and British Attitudes During the American War of Independence.”  William and Mary Quarterly 59 (January 2002): 101-122.

Bickham, Troy.  Making Headlines: The American Revolution as Seen through the British Press.  DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009.

Block, Sharon. “Rape and Race in Colonial Newspapers, 1728-1776.” Journalism History 27:4 (Winter 2001/2002): 146-155.

Bond, Donovan H., and W. Reynolds McLeod, eds.  Newsletters to Newspapers: Eighteenth Century Journalism.  Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University, 1977.*

Botein, Stephen.  “Mere Mechanics and an Open Press: The Business and Political Strategy of Colonial American Printers.”  Perspectives in American History 9 (1975): 127-225.

Botein, Stephen, ed.  Mr. Zenger’s Malice and Falsehood: Six Issues of the New York Weekly Journal, 1733-34.  Boston: American Antiquarian Society, 1985.

Bowers, Thomas A.  “Precision Journalism in North Carolina in the 1800s.”  Journalism Quarterly 53 (Winter 1976): 738-739.

Bradley, Patricia.  “Slavery in Colonial Newspapers: The Somerset Case.” Journalism History 12 (Spring 1985): 2-7.

Bradley, Patricia.  “The Boston Gazette and Slavery as Revolutionary Propaganda.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (1995): 581-596.

Bradley, Patricia.  Slavery, Propaganda, and the American Revolution.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.

Breen, T.H.  The Marketplace Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Breslaw, Elaine. “‘Scotch Drollery’ in the Marketplace: Dr. Alexander Hamilton’s Amusing Instruction in the Maryland Gazette.” Early American Literature 42 (June 2007): 217–33.

Brigham, Clarence S.  History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820.  2 Volumes.  Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1947.

Brigham, Clarence S.  Journals and Journeymen: A Contribution to the History of Early American Newspapers.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950.

Brown, Jerald E. “It Facilitated Correspondence: The Post, Postmasters, and Newspaper Publishing in Colonial America.”  Retrospection 2:1 (1989): 1-15.

Brown, Richard D. Knowledge is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Brown, Richard D. The Strength of the People: The Idea of an Informed Citizenry in America, 1650-1870.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Brown, Walter.  John Adams and the American Press: Politics and Journalism at the Birth of the Republic. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 1995.

Bruenckner, Martin.  The Rule of Geography in Early America: Maps, Textbooks, and the Making of Identity.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Buckingham, Joseph T.  Personal Memoirs and Recollections of Editorial Life.  Boston: Tichnor, Reed, and Fields, 1852.  (Boston Courier, New England Galaxy)

Burns, Eric.  Infamous Scribblers: The Founding Fathers and the Rowdy Beginnings of American Journalism.  New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Burriss, Larry L.  “America’s First Newspaper Leak: Tom Paine and the Disclosure of Secret French Aid to the United States.” PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 1983.

Campbell, Jill.  “Domestic Intelligence: Newspaper Advertising and the Eighteenth-Century Novel.”  Yale Journal of Criticism 15:2 (Fall 2002): 251-291.

Canfield, Cass.  Sam Adams’ Revolution, 1765-1776.  New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

Carson, Cary, et al., eds. Of Consuming Interest: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994.*

Castronovo, Russ.  Propaganda 1776: Secrets, Leaks, and Revolutionary Communications in Early America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Clark, Charles E.  “The Newspapers of Provincial America.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 100 (1990): 367-389.

Chaves, Joseph. “‘A most exquisite Mechanic’: Labor and Leisure, Printing and Authorship in the Periodical Essays of Benjamin Franklin.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 96 (2002): 521-530.

Chopra, Ruma. “Printer Hugh Gaine Crosses and Re-crosses the Hudson.” New York History 90 (Fall 2009): 271–285.

Clark, Charles E.  The Public Prints: The Newspaper in Anglo-American Culture, 1665-1740. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Clark, Charles E., and Charles Wetherell. “The Measure of Maturity: The Pennsylvania Gazette, 1728-1765.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 46 (1989): 279-303.

Clark, Charles E. “The Press the Founders Knew,” in Freeing the Presses: The First Amendment in Action, ed. Timothy E. Cook, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005. 

Clayton, Andrew.  Love in the Time of Revolution: Transatlantic Literary Radicalism and Historical Change, 1793-1818.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Cohen, Daniel A.  Pillars of Sale, Monuments of Grace: New England Crime Literature and the Origins of American Popular Culture, 1674-1860.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Cohen, Hennig.  The South Carolina Gazette, 1732-1775.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1953.

Cohen, Matt.  The Networked Wilderness: Communicating in Early New England.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010. 

Conforti, Michael.  “John Wilkes, the Wilkite Movement, and a Free Press in America.”  Journalism History 43:1 (Spring 2017): 32-43.

Conroy, David W.  In Public Houses: Drink and the Revolution in Authority in Colonial Massachusetts.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Cook, Elizabeth Christine.  Literary Influences in Colonial Newspapers, 1704-1750.  Port Washington, NY, 1966.

Copeland, David A. “A Receipt Against the Plague: Medical Reporting in Colonial America.”  American Journalism 11:3 (1994): 204- 218. 

Copeland, David A. “The Proceedings of the Rebellious Negroes: News of Slave Insurrections and Crimes in Colonial Newspapers.” American Journalism 12:2 (1995): 83-106.

Copeland, David A.  “In All the Papers: Reporting on Religion in Colonial America.”  American Journalism 13: 4 (Fall 1996): 390-415.

Copeland, David A. Colonial American Newspapers: Character and Content.  Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1997.

Copeland, David. “‘Join or Die’: America’s Newspapers in the French and Indian War.” Journalism History 24:3 (Autumn 1998): 112-121.

Copeland, David A.  Debating the Issues in Colonial Newspapers: Primary Documents on Events of the Period.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Copeland, David A. “Securing the Affections of Those People at This Critical Juncture: Newspapers, Native Americans, and the French and Indian War, 1754-1763.” American Journalism19:4 (2002): 37-66.

Cullen, George E.  “Talking to a Whirlwind: The Loyalist Printers in America, 1763-1783.”  PhD dissertation, West Virginia University, 1979.

Cullen, Maurice R. Jr.  “The Boston Gazette: A Community Newspaper.” Journalism Quarterly 36 (1959): 204-208.

Cullen, Maurice R.  “Benjamin Edes: Scourge of Tories.”  Journalism Quarterly 51 (1974): 213-218.

Daley, Patrick.  “Newspaper Competition and Public Spheres in New Hampshire in the Early Revolutionary Period.”  Journalism and  Communication Monographs 11:1 (Spring 2009): 4-65.

Davidson, Philip.  Propaganda and the American Revolution.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941.

DeArmond, Anna J.  Andrew Bradford, Colonial Journalist.  Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1949.

Demeter, Richard L.  Printers, Presses, and Composing Sticks: Women Printers of the Colonial Period.  New York: Exposition Press, 1979.

Desrochers, Robert E., Jr. “Slave-for-Sale Advertisements and Slavery in Massachusetts, 1704-1781.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 59 (2002): 623-64

Dickerson, O.M.  “British Control of American Newspapers on the Eve of the Revolution.”  New England Quarterly 24:4 (December 1951): 453-468.

Dierks, Konstantin.  In My Power: Letter Writing and Communications in Early America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

DiGirolamo, Vincent.  “In Franklin’s Footsteps: News Couriers and Postboys in the Revolution and Early Republic,” in Children and Youth in a New Nation, James Marten, ed.  New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Dodge, Robert K.  “Didactic Humor in the Almanacs of Early America.”  Journal of Popular Culture 5:3 (Winter 1971): 592-605.

Dowdy, Beverly A.  “Selling Virginia: Promoting English Emigration in the Seventeenth Century.” Advertising & Society Quarterly 21:2 (Summer 2020).

Dubcovsky, Alejandra. “Connected Worlds: Communication Networks in the Colonial Southeast, 1513-1740.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2011.

Dubcovsky, Alejandra.  “Communication in Colonial North America.”  History Compass 15:9 (September 2017): 1-10.

Eamon, Michael.  Imprinting Britain: Newspapers, Sociability, and the Shaping of British North America.  Toronto: McGill-Queens University Press, 2015.

Eisenstadt, Peter.  “Almanacs and the Disenchantment of Early America.”  Pennsylvania History 65:2 (Spring 1998): 143-169.

Everton, Michael.  “The Would-Be Author and the Real Bookseller: Thomas Paine and Eighteenth-Century Printing Ethics.”  Early American Literature 40:1 (January 2005): 79-110.

Finkelman, Paul, ed.  A Brief Narrative of the Case and Tryal of John Peter Zenger: With Related Documents.  Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2010.

Foner, Eric.   Tom Paine and Revolutionary America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Foster, Thomas A. “Antimasonic Satire, Sodomy, and Eighteenth-Century Masculinity in the Boston Evening-Post.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (2003): 171-184.

Frank, Jr., Willard C.  “Error, Distortion, and Bias in the Virginia Gazette, 1773-74.”  Journalism Quarterly 49 (Winter 1972): 729-739.

Franklin V, Benjamin, ed.  Boston Printers, Publishers, and Booksellers: 1640-1800.  Boston: G.K. Hall, 1980.

Franklin, Benjamin.  The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.  Many editions of this classic text are available.

Frasca, Ralph.  “The Glorious Publick Virtue So Dominant in Our Rising Country:’ Benjamin Franklin’s Printing Network During the Revolutionary Era.” American Journalism 13 (1996): 21-37.

Frasca, Ralph. “‘I am now about to establish a small Printing Office . . . at Newhaven’: Benjamin Franklin and the First Newspaper in Connecticut.” Connecticut History  44 (Spring 2005), 77­87.

Frasca, Ralph.  Benjamin Franklin’s Printing Network: Disseminating Virtue in Early America. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006.

Frasca, Ralph. “A Tincture of Madness: Benjamin Franklin’s Printing Network in the Caribbean.” The Latin Americanist67:1 (March 2023): 8-16.

Gabrielson, Teena. “James Madison’s Psychology of Public Opinion.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (September 2009): 431–444.

Godfrey, Laurie E.  “The Printers of the Williamsburg Virginia Gazette, 1766-1776.”  Phd dissertation, Regent University, 1998.

Green, Stuart A. “Repeal of the Stamp Act: The Merchants’ and Manufacturers Testimony.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 128 (2004): 179-197.

Graffignino, Kevin.  “We Have Long Been Wishing for a Good Printer in This Vicinity: The State of Vermont, the First East Union, and the Dresden Press, 1778-1779.” Vermont History 47:1 (Winter 1979): 21-36.

Grandjean, Katherine.  American Passage: The Communications Frontier in Early New England.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015.

Grasso, Christopher. “Print, Poetry and Politics: John Trumbull and the Transformation of Public Discourse in Revolutionary America.” Early American Literature 30 (1995): 5-31.

Green, James M.  Matthew Carey: Publisher and Patriot.  Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia, 1985.

Gunn, Giles, ed.  Early American Writing.  New York: Penguin, 1994.

Gustafson, Sandra M. “The Emerging Media of Early America.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 115 (2005), 205-50.

Guthrie, Jason Lee.  “Poor Richard Revised: Benjamin Franklin and the Ritual Economy of Copyright in Colonial America.”  American Journalism 35:3 (Summer 2018): 315-333.

Harlan, Robert.  “David Hall and the Stamp Act.”  Papers of the Bibliographic Society of America  61 (1967): 13-37.

Hawke, David F.  Everyday Life in Early America.  New York: Hill & Wang, 1988.

Hench, John B.  “The Newspaper in a Republic: Boston’s Centinel and Chronicle, 1784-1801.” PhD dissertation, Clark University, 1979.

Henry, Susan.  “Sarah Goddard, Gentlewoman Printer.”  Quarterly 57 (Spring 1980): 23-30.

Henry, Susan.  “Exception to the Female Model: Colonial Printer Mary Crouch.”  Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 725-33, 749.

Hester, Al, Susan Parker Humes, and Christopher Bickers.  “Foreign News in Colonial North American Newspapers, 1764-1775.”  Journalism Quarterly 57 (1980): 18-22, 44.

Hewlett, Leroy.  “James Rivington, Loyalist Printer, Publisher, Bookseller of the American Revolution, 1724-1802.” PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1958.

Hixson, Richard F.  Isaac Collins: A Quaker Printer in Eighteenth Century America.  Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1968.

Hodges, Graham Russell, and Alan Edward Brown.  “Pretends to be Free”: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Hoffer, Peter Charles. When Benjamin Franklin Met the Reverend Whitefield: Enlightenment, Revival, and the Power of the Printed Word.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011. 

Humphrey, Carol Sue.  “Little Ado About Something: Philadelphia Newspapers and the Constitutional Convention.” American Journalism 5 (1988): 63.

Humphrey, Carol Sue.  This Popular Engine: New England Newspapers During the Revolutionary War, 1775-1789.  Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1992.

Humphrey, Carol Sue.  “Historiographical Essay: The Revolutionary Press- Source of Unity or Division?”  American Journalism 6:4 (Fall 1989): 245-256.

Humphrey, Carol Sue.  The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 to 1800.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Humphrey, Carol Sue.  The American Revolution and the Press: The Promise of Independence.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2013.

Hume, Janice.  Popular Media and the American Revolution: Shaping Collective Memory.  New York: Routledge, 2014.

Huxford, Gary.  ” The English Libertarian Tradition in the Colonial Newspaper.” Journalism Quarterly 45 (1968): 677-686.

Johnson, Odai. “‘God prevent it ever being established’: The Campaign against Theatre in Colonial Boston Newspapers.” New England Theatre Journal 10 (1999): 13-25.

Joyce, William L., et al, eds.  Printing and Society in Early America.  Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1983.

Kaestle, Carl.  “The Public Reaction to John Dickinson’s ‘Farmer’s Letters.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 78 (1969).

Kamrath, Mark L., and Sharon M. Harris, eds.  Periodical Literature in Eighteenth-Century America.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

Kaye, Harvey J.   Thomas Paine and the Promise of America.  New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.

Keller, Kate Van Winkle. “Nathaniel Coverly and Son, Printers, 1767–1825.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 117 (part 1, 2007): 211–252.

Kerber, Linda. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Kerry, Paul E., and Matthew S. Holland, eds.  Benjamin Franklin’s Intellectual World.  Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press2013.

Keyes, Carl Robert.  “History Prints, Newspaper Advertisements, and Cultivating Citizen Consumers: Patriotism and Partisanship in Marketing Campaigns in the Era of Revolution.”  American Periodicals 24:2 (2014): 145-185.

Keyes, Carl Robert.  “Selling Gentility and Pretending Morality: Education and Newspaper Advertisements in Philadelphia, 1765-75.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 141:3 (October 2017): 245-274.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  News in the Mail: The Press, Post Office, and Public Information, 1700-1860s.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Kluger, Richard.  Indelible Ink: The Trials of John Peter Zenger and the Birth of America’s Free Press.  New York: Norton, 2016.

Knight, Carol Lynn H.  The American Colonial Press and the Townshend Crisis, 1766-1770.  Lewiston, Maine: Mellon Press, 1990.

Kobre, Sidney.  The Development of the Colonial Newspaper.  Pittsburgh: The Colonial Press, 1944.

Larkin, Edward.  “Inventing an American Public: Thomas Paine, the Pennsylvania Magazine, and American Revolutionary Discourse.”  Early American Literature 33:3 (1998): 250-276.

Larkin, Edward.  Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Leonard, Thomas C.  News For All: America’s Coming of Age with the Press.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Lockridge, Kenneth A.  Literacy in Colonial New England.  New York: Norton, 1974.

Lorimer Linford, Autumn. “Rivington Revisited: A Nuanced Look a James Rivington, America’s ‘Tory’ Printer.” Journalism History 47:3 (2021): 285-301.

Martin, Robert W. T.  The Free and Open Press: The Founding of American Democratic Press Liberty, 1640-1800.  New York: New York University Press, 2001.

McCusker, John J.  “The Demise of Distance: The Business Press and the Origins of the Information Revolution in the Early Atlantic World.”  American Historical Review 110 (April 2005): 295-321.

McIntyre, Shelia.  “I Heare it so Variously Reported: News-letters, Newspapers, and the Ministerial Network in New England, 1670-1730.” New England Quarterly 71:4 (December 1998): 593-614.

Mellen, Roger P.  “Thomas Jefferson and the Origins of Newspaper Competition in Pre-Revolutionary Virginia.”   Journalism History 35:3 (Fall 2009): 151-161.

Mellen, Roger P. The Origins of a Free Press in Pre-Revolutionary Virginia: Creating a Culture of Political Dissent. (Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2009)

Mellen, Roger P. “An Expanding Public Sphere: Women and Print in Colonial Virginia, 1736–1776.” American Journalism 27 (Fall 2010): 7–35.

Mellen, Roger.  “The Press, Paper Shortages, and Revolution in Early America.”  Media History 21: 1 (February 2015): 23-41.

Mellen, Roger P.  “Representation of Slaves in the Eighteenth-Century Virginia Press.” Journalism History 42:3 (Fall 2016): 142-152.

Morgan, Edmund S., and Helen Morgan.  The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1953.

Morison, Samuel Eliot.  The Intellectual Life of Colonial New England.  New York, 1956.

Morse, Jarvis Means.  Connecticut Newspapers in the Eighteenth Century.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1935.

Moses, James L.  “Journalistic Impartiality on the Eve of the Revolution: The Boston Evening Press, 1770-1775.” Journalism History 20:3 (Autumn 1994): 125-130.

Mospurgo, J.E., ed.  Cobbett’s America: A Selection from the Writings of William Cobbett.  London: Folio Society, 1985.

Murdock, Kenneth B.  Literature and Theology in Colonial New England.  Reprint edition.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.

Nash, Gary B.  The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Newman, Paul Douglas.  “Red Journalism: The Allegheny Indians, Ben Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette, and the Ethnic Cleansing of Pennsylvania, 1747-1764.”  Journalism History 45:3 (2019): 227-249.

Nord, David Paul.  “The Authority of Truth: Religion and the John Peter Zenger Case.” Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 227-35.

Nord, David Paul. “Teleology and the News: The Religious Roots of American Journalism, 1630-1730.” Journal of American History 77 (June 1990): 9-38.

Nord, David Paul.  “Plain and Certain Facts’: Four Episodes in Public Affairs Reporting.”  Journalism History 37:2 (Summer 2011): 80-90.

Nordin, Kenneth D.  “The Entertaining Press: Sensationalism in Eighteenth Century Boston Newspapers.”  Communication Research 6 (1979): 295-320.

Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Olson, Alison. “The Zenger Case Revisited: Satire, Sedition, and Political Debate in Eighteenth-Century America.” Early American Literature, 35 (2000), 223-45.

O’Neill, Lindsay.  The Opened Letter: Networking in the Early Modern British World.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Parcell, Lisa M.  “Early American Newswriting Style.”  Journalism History 37:1 (Spring 2011): 2-11.

Parker, Peter J.  “The Philadelphia Printer: A Study of an Eighteenth Century Businessman.”  Business History Review 40 (1966): 24-46.

Perl-Rosenthal, Nathan. “Corresponding Republics: Letter Writing and Patriot Organizing in the Atlantic Revolutions, circa 1760–1792.”  PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 2011.

Phillips, Kim T.  “William Duane, Revolutionary Editor.”  PhD dissertation, University of California-Berkeley, 1968.

Poulin, Eugena, and Claire Quintal, trans.   La Gazette Françoise, 1780–1781: Revolutionary America’s French Newspaper.  Hanover: University Press of New England, 2007.

Putnam, William Lowell.  John Peter Zenger and the Fundamental Freedom.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997.

Raymond, Allan R.  “To Reach Men’s Minds: Almanacs and the American Revolution, 1760-1777.”  New England Quarterly 51:3 (September 1978): 370-395.

Reese, William S.  “The First Hundred Years of Printing in British North America: Printers and Collectors.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 99 (1989): 337-373.

Reinert, Sophus.   “The Way to Wealth Around the World: Benjamin and the Globalization of American Capitalism.”  American Historical Review 120:1 (February 2015): 61-97.

Resch, John, and Walter Sargent, eds.  War and Society in the American Revolution: Mobilization and Home Fronts.  DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006.

Rivera, Clark.  “Ideals, Interests, and Civil Liberty: The Colonial Press and Freedom, 1735-76.”  Journalism Quarterly 55 (Spring 1978): 45-53.

Roberts, Kyle B.  “Rethinking The New-England Primer.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 104 (December 2010): 489–523.

Rutland, Robert Allen.  “The First Great Newspaper Debate: The Constitutional Crisis of 1787-88.”  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 97 (1987): 43-58.

Scarborough King, Rachael.  “The Gazette, the Tatler, and the Making of the Periodical Essay: Form and Genre in Eighteenth-Century News.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 114:1 (March 2020): 45-70.

Scherr, Arthur. “‘Sambos’ and ‘black cut-throats’: Peter Porcupine on Slavery and Race in the 1790s.” American Periodicals 13 (2003): 3-20.

Scherr, Arthur.  “To Alarm the Publick Mind: A Reexamination of Pamphlets and Newspapers in Philadelphia and the Early Republic.”  Pennsylvania History 83:3 (Summer 2016): 297-336.

Scherr, Arthur.  “John Taylor of Caroline: Pamphlets and the Press in the 1790s.” American Periodicals 27:1 (2017): 53-72.

Schiff, Stacy.  The Revolutionary: Samuel Adams.  New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2022.

Schlesinger, Arthur M.  Prelude to Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain 1764-1776.  New York: Knopf, 1957.

Schudson, Michael. “Sending a Political Message: Lessons from the American 1790s.” Media, Culture, and Society 19 (1997): 311-330.

Shalhope, Robert.  The Roots of America: American Thought and Culture, 1760-1800.  Boston: Twayne, 1990.

Shaw, Matthew J. “Keeping Time in the Age of Franklin: Almanacs and the Atlantic World.” Printing History 1:2 (July 2007).

Shaw, Steven J. “Colonial Newspaper Advertising: A Step Toward Freedom of the Press.”  Business History Review 33:3 (Autumn 1959): 409-420.

Silver, Rollo G. “Benjamin Edes: Trumpeter of Sedition.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 47:3 (1953): 248-268.

Silver, Rollo G.  “Aprons Instead of Uniforms: The Practice of Printing, 1776-1787.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 87:1 (1977): 111-194.

Skaggs, David C.  “The Editorial Policies of the Maryland Gazette, 1765-1783.”  Maryland Historical Magazine 59 (1964): 341-349.

Skillin, Larry Alexander. “From Proclamation to Dialogue: The Colonial Press and the Emergence of an American Public Sphere, 1640–1725.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 2009.

Slauter, Eric.  “Reading and Radicalization: Print, Politics, and the American Revolution.” Early American Studies 8:1 (Winter 2010): 5-40.

Slauter, William. “News and Diplomacy in the Age of the American Revolution.” PhD dissertation, Princeton University, 2007.

Slauter, Eric.  “Reading and Radicalization: Print, Politics, and the American Revolution.” Early American Studies 8:1 (2010): 5-40.

Sloan, Wm. David. “The New England Courant, Voice of Anglicanism: The Role of Religion in Colonial Journalism.” American Journalism 8:2/3 (1991): 108-141.

Sloan, Wm. David and Julie H. Williams. The Early American Press, 1690-1783. Westwood, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Smith, Billy Gordon, and Richard Wojtowicz, comps.  Blacks Who Stole Themselves: Advertisements for Runaways in the Pennsylvania Gazette, 1728-1790. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Smith, Lisa H.  “The First Great Awakening in American Newspapers, 1739-1748.”  PhD dissertation, University of Delaware, 1999.

Smith, Mark A. “Andrew Brown’s ‘Earnest Endeavor’: The Federal Gazette‘s Role in Philadelphia’s Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120 (1996): 321-42.

Smith, Jeffery A.  “Impartiality and Revolutionary Ideology: Editorial Policies of the South Carolina Gazette.”  Journal of Southern History 49 (1983): 511-526.

Smith, Jeffery A.  Franklin and BacheEnvisioning the Enlightened Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Smith, William.  The History of the Post Office in British North America, 1639-1870.  New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1973.

Spindel, Donna J.  “The Stamp Act Riots.”  PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1975.

Starr, Paul.  The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications.  New York: Basic Books, 2004.

Steele, Ian K.  The English Atlantic, 1675-1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Stout, Harry.  “Religion, Communications, and the Ideological Origins of the American Revolution.”  William and Mary Quarterly 34 (October 1977): 519-541.

Stowell, Marion Barber.  Early American Almanacs: The Colonial Weekday Bible.  New York: Burt Franklin, 1977.

Taylor, Jordan.  “Enquire of the Printer: Newspaper Advertising and the Moral Economy of the North American Slave Trade, 1704-1807.”  Early American Studies 18:3 (Summer 2020): 287-323.

Taylor, Jordan E.  Misinformation Nation: Foreign News and the Politics of Truth in Revolutionary America.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2022.

Taylor, Jordan E.  “Hiding in Paine Sight: Jonathan Shipley’s Forgotten Bestsellers and the Print Culture of the American Revolution.” Book History 25:2 (Fall 2022): 297-324.

Teeter, Dwight L.  “King’ Sears, the Mob, and Freedom of the Press in New York, 1765-1776.”  Journalism Quarterly 41 (1964): 539-544.

Teeter, Dwight L.  “A Legacy of Expression : Philadelphia Newspapers and Congress during the War for Independence, 1775-1783.” PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1966.

Teeter, Dwight L.  “Press Freedom and the Public Printing, 1775-83.”  Journalism Quarterly 45 (Autumn 1968): 445-451.

Thomas, Charles.  “The Publication of Newspapers During the American Revolution.”  Journalism Quarterly 9 (1932): 358-373.

Thomas, Isaiah.  The History of Printing in America, With a Biography of Printers and an Account of Newspapers.  reprint edition.  New York: Weathervane Books, 1970. (originally published in 1810)

Thompson, Peter.  Pum Punch and Revolution: Taverngoing and Public Life in Eighteenth-Century America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Tirre, Daniel.  “Some Hideous Monster Came to Devour Them: Monsters in Early American Newspapers.”  New England Journal of History 73:2 (Spring 2017): 59-88.

Touba, Mariam.  “Tom Paine’s Plan for Revolutionizing America: Diplomacy, Politics, and the Evolution of a Newspaper Rumor.”  Journalism History 20 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 116-124.

Touba, Mariam.  “These Are the Times, or, in Other Words: Thomas Paine’s 1776 Wartime Journalism.”  New York History 101:1 (Summer 2020): 79-93.

Verhoeven, Betsy L. “Revolutionary-Era Vernacular Sphere Rhetoric in the Massachusetts Spy (1770–1775).”  PhD dissertation, University of Denver, 2005.

Waldstreicher, David. “Reading the Runaways: Self-Fashioning, Print Culture, and Confidence in Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century Mid-Atlantic.” William and Mary Quarterly 56 (1999): 243-272.

Walett, Francis G.  Massachusetts Newspapers and the Revolutionary Crisis.  Boston, 1974.

Walett, Francis G.  Patriots, Loyalists, and Printers: Bicentennial Articles on the American Revolution.  Boston: American Antiquarian Society, 1976.

Wallace, John William.  An Old Gentleman, Colonel William Bradford, the Patriot Printer of 1776: Sketches of His Life.  Philadelphia: Sherman & Co., 1884.

Warner, Michael. The Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Warner, William Beatty.  “Communicating Liberty: The Newspapers of the British Empire as a Matrix for the American Revolution.”  English Literary History 72 (Summer 2005): 339–61.

Warner, William B.  Protocols of Liberty: Communication, Innovation, and the American Revolution.  Chicago: University of Chicago, 2014.

Watson, Amy.  “The New York Patriot Movement: Partisanship, the Free Press, and Britain’s Imperial Constitution, 1731-1739.”  William and Mary Quarterly 77:1 (January 2020): 33-64.

Wax, Donald.  “The Image of the Negro in the Maryland Gazette, 1774-1775.” Journalism Quarterly 46 (1969): 73-80, 86.

Wetherell, Charles W.  “Brokers of the Word: An Essay in the Social History of the Early American Press, 1639-1783.” PhD dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 1980.

Wheeler, Joseph Towne.  The Maryland Press, 1777-1790.  Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1938.

Williams, Julie H.  The Significance of the Printed Word in Early America: Colonists’ Thoughts on the Role of the Press.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Wright, Louis B.  The Cultural Life of the American Colonies: 1607-1763.  New York, 1957.

Wroth, Lawrence C.  The Colonial Printer.  2nd edition.  Charlottesville, VA: Dominion Books, 1964.

Yeager, Jonathan M.  Jonathan Edwards and Transatlantic Print Culture.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Yodelis, Mary Ann. “Who Paid the Piper?: Publishing Economics in Boston, 1763-1775.” Journalism Monographs, No. 38 (1975).