Mass Media in Wartime

This page covers wartime journalism from the Spanish-American War to the Gulf War and contains a section on war correspondents in general at the bottom. See the pages for Propaganda and Freedom of Expression for citations related to those topics and wartime media.

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Spanish-American War

Allen, Douglas.  Frederic Remington and the Spanish American War.  New York: Crown Publishing, 1971.

Andreau, Darien E.  “Sylvester H. Scovel, Journalist, and the Spanish American War.”  PhD dissertation, Florida State University, 2003.  (New York World)

Auxier, George W.  “Middle Western Newspapers and the Spanish-American War, 1895-1898.”  Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26:4 (March 1940): 523-534.

Baker, Ray Stannard.  “How the News of the War is Reported.”  McClure’s Magazine (September 1898).

Berkey, James. “Splendid Little Papers from the ‘Splendid Little War’: Mapping Empire in the Soldier Newspapers of the Spanish-American War.” The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 3, no. 2 (2012): 158–174.

Bouvier, Virginia M.  Whose War: The War of 1898 and the Battle to Define the Nation.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Brisbane, Arthur.  “The Modern Newspaper in Wartime.”  Cosmopolitan (September 1898).

Brown, Charles H.  The Correspondents’ War: Journalists and the Spanish-American War.  New York: Scribner’s, 1967.

Brown, Charles B.  “A Woman’s Odyssey: The War Correspondence of Anna Benjamin.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Autumn 1969): 522-530.  

Campbell, W. Joseph.  “Not Likely Sent: The Remington-Hearst ‘Telegrams,'” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77:2 (Summer 2000): 405–422.

Campbell, W. Joseph. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Campbell, W. Joseph.  “Not a Hoax: New Evidence in the New York Journal’s Rescue of Evangelina Cisneros.”  American Journalism 19: 4 (Fall 2002): 67–94.

Campbell, W. Joseph.  The Spanish-American War.  American Wars and Media in Primary Documents.   Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Carey, Craig.  “Breaking the News: Telegraphy and Yellow Journalism in the Spanish-American War.”  American Periodicals 26:2 (2016): 130-148.

Davis, Richard Harding.  The Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns.  New York: Scribner’s, 1898.

Donahue, William J.  “The United States Newspaper Press Reaction to the Maine Incident- 1898.” PhD dissertation, University of Colorado, 1970.

Lemons, J. Stanley.  “The Cuban Crisis of 1895-1898: Newspapers and Nativism.”  Missouri Historical Review 60:1 (October 1965): 63-74.

Mander, Mary S.  “Pen and Sword: Problems of Reporting the Spanish-American War.”  Journalism History 9:1 (Spring 1982): 2-9, 28.

Miller, Bonnie.  “The Spectacle of War: A Study of Spanish-American War Visual and Popular Culture.”  PhD dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 2006. 

Miller, Bonnie M.  From Liberation to Conquest: The Visual and Popular Culture of the Spanish-American War of 1898.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011.

Miller, Bonnie M. “Did Fake News Unite the Home Front Behind a War With Spain? A Reconsideration of U.S. Press Coverage, 1895-1898.” Home Front Studies 1 (2021): 1-31.

Nasaw, David.  The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Boston: Mariner Books, 2000.

Offner, John.  The Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain Over Cuba.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Olaskey, Marvin N.  “Hawks or Doves?  Texas Press and the Spanish-American War.”  Journalism Quarterly 64 (Spring 1987): 205-208.

Potter, Simon J. “Jingoism, Public Opinion, and the New Imperialism: Newspapers and Imperial Rivalries at the fin de siècle.” Media History 20 (January 2014): 34–50.

Seelye, John.  War Games: Richard Harding Davis and the New Imperialism.   Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Spencer, David R.  The Yellow Journalism: The Press and America’s Emergence as a World Power.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2007.

Squires, Grant.  “Experiences of a War Censor.”  Atlantic Monthly (March 1899): 425-432.  (Spanish-American War)

Sylwester, Harold J.  “The Kansas Press and the Coming of the Spanish-American War.”  Historian 31 (1969): 251-267.

Vaughn, Christopher A. “The ‘Discovery’ of the Philippines by the U.S. Press, 1898-1902.” Historian 57:2 (Winter 1995): 303-314.

Welter, Mark M.  “The 1895-1898 Cuban Crisis in Minnesota Papers: Testing the ‘Yellow Journalism’ Theory.”  Journalism Quarterly 47 (Winter 1970): 719-724.

Wisan, Joseph.  The Cuban Crisis as Reflected in the New York Press.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1934.  (reprinted in 1965 by Octagon Books)

World War I 

Abel, Richard. “Charge and Countercharge: ‘Documentary’ War Pictures in the USA, 1914–1916.” Film History 22 (December 2010): 366–388.

Axelrod, Alan.  Selling the Great War: The Making of American Propaganda.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Bean, Walton E.  “The Accuracy of Creel Committee News, 1917-1919: An Examination of Cases.” Journalism Quarterly 18 (September 1941): 263.

Bean, Walton E.  “George Creel and His Critics: A Study of the Attacks on the Committee on Public Information.” PhD dissertation, University of California-Berkeley, 1941.

Bennett, Scott H., and Charles F. Howlett, eds.  Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in World War I America: A Documentary Reader.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2016.

Bridges, Lamar W.  “The Zimmerman Telegram: Reaction of Southern, Southwestern Newspapers.” Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 81-86.

Brooks, Sydney.  “The Press in War-Time.” North American Review 200 (December 1914): 858-869.

Capazzola, Christopher.  “The Only Badge You Need is your Patriotic Fervor: Vigilance, Coercion, and the Law in World War I America.”  Journal of American History 48 (March 2002): 1354-1382.

Capozzolo, Christopher.  Uncle Sam Wants You: World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Complete Report of the Chairman of the Committee on Public Information- 1917:1918:1919.  Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1920.

Cornebise, Alfred E.  War as Advertised: The Four Minute Men and America’s Crusade, 1917-1918.  Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1984.

Cornebise, Alfred E.  The Stars and Stripes: Doughboy Journalism in World War I.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984. 

Cornwell, Elmer F., Jr.  “Wilson, Creel, and the Presidency.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 23 (Summer 1959): 189-202.

Coventry, Michael T.  “Editorials at a Glance: Cultural Policy, Gender, and Modernity in the World War I Bureau of Cartoons.”  Review of Policy Research 24:2 (2007): 97-117.

Creel, George.  How We Advertised America. New York: Harper Brothers, 1920.   (newer paperback available)

Crozier, Emmet.  American Reporters on the Western Front, 1914-1918.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1959.

DeBauche, Leslie Midkiff.  Reel Patriotism: The Movies and World War I. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997.

Dubbs, Chris.  American Journalists in the Great War: Rewriting the Rules of Reporting.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017.

Dubbs, Chris, and John-Daniel Kelly.  The AEF in Print: An Anthology of American Journalism In World War I.  Denton:  University of North Texas Press, 2018.

Dubbs, Chris.  An Unladylike Profession: American Women War Correspondents in World War I.  Lincoln: Potomac Books, 2020.

Dubbs, Chris, ed.  American Women Report World War I: An Anthology of Their Journalism.  Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2021.

Dubbs, Chris, and Carolyn M. Edy.  The Weekly War: How the Saturday Evening Post Reported World War I.  Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2023.

Dunbar, Burton L.  Art and Propaganda: Images of Ourselves and out Enemies, 1914-1918.  Kansas City: Liberty Memorial Museum, 1987.

Dunn, Robert.  World Alive.  New York: Crown, 1956.  WWI, NY Post

Glende, Philip M. “Victor Berger’s Dangerous Ideas: Censoring the Mail to Preserve National Security during World War I.” Essays in Economic and Business History 26 (2008): 5–20.

Finn, Peter, and John Maxwell Hamilton, eds. Herbert Corey’s Great War: A Memoir of World War I By the American Reporter Who Saw it All.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2022.

Fondren, Elisabeth.  “Real News Arrives from Abroad: Transnational Witnessing in Leonora Raines’ War Correspondence fort the New York Evening Sun (1914-1918).” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 101:2 (2024): 500-528.

Foster Jr., H. Schuyler.  “A Quantitative Study of War News, 1914-1917.” American Journal of Sociology 40:4 (1935): 464-475.

Fulwider, Chad R.  German Propaganda and U.S. Neutrality in World War I.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2016.

Grieves, Kevin.  “It Would Be Best To Suspend Publication: The German-American Press and Anti-German Hysteria During World War I.”  American Journalism 37:1 (Winter 2020): 47-65.

Grasty, Charles.  Flashes From the Front.  New York: Century, 1918.    NY Times, WWI

Gruber, Carol S.  Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of Higher Education in America.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975.

Hamilton, John Maxwell, ed.  A Journalist’s Diplomatic Mission: Ray Stannard Baker’s World War I Diary. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2012. 

Hamilton, John Maxwell.  Manipulating the Masses: Woodrow Wilson and the Birth of American Propaganda.  Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2020.

Hatch, Vicky Ann. “A Study of How Letters to the Editor Published in The Stars and Stripes Newspaper between March 1, 1918, and November 15, 1918, Reflected the Morale of the Troops during World War I.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wyoming, 2009.

Hayden, Joseph H.  Negotiating in the Press: American Journalism and Diplomacy, 1918-1919.  Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2010.

Hecht, George J.  The War in Cartoons: A History of the War in 100 Cartoons by 27 of the Most Prominent American Cartoonists.  New York: Dutton, 1919.

Hildebrand, Robert C.  Power and the People: Executive Management of Public Opinion in Foreign Affairs, 1897-1921.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Hogan, J. Michael.  Woodrow Wilson’s Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion, and the League of Nations.  College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2006.

Horne, John. “German Atrocities, 1914: Fact, Fantasy or Fabrication?” History Today 52: 4 (April 2002): 47-53.

Isenberg, Michael T.  War on Film: The American Cinema and World War I, 1914-1941.  East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Press, 1981.

James, Pearl, ed. Picture This: World War I Posters and Visual Culture.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009.

Jeffrey, Caitlín Marie Thérèse. “Journey through Unfamiliar Territory: American Reporters and the First World War.”  PhD dissertation, University of California- Irvine, 2007.

Johnson, Donald.  “Wilson, Burlson, and Censorship in the First World War.”  Journal of Southern History 28 (1962): 46-58.

Johnson, Donald.  The Challenge to American Freedom.  World War I and the Rise of the American Civil Liberties Union.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1963.

Jordan, William G.  Black Newspapers and America’s War For Democracy, 1914-1920.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Keith, William, and Karl Whittenberger-Keith.  “What Do Four Minutes Matter?” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 13:2 (Summer 2010): 323-327.     

Kennedy, David M.  Over Here: The First World War and American Society.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Kingsbury, Celia Malone. For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.

Klekowski, Edward J., and Libby Klekowski.  Eyewitnesses to the Great War: American Writers, Reporters, Volunteers and Soldiers in France, 1914-1918. Jefferson: McFarland, 2012.

Krass, Peter.  Portrait of War: The U.S. Army’s First Combat Artists and the Doughboys’ Experience in WWI.  Hoboken: Wiley, 2007.

Lagle, Maggie Elizabeth. “The Lusitania and the American Public Response: A Newspaper Narrative.” PhD dissertation, University of Central Oklahoma, 2017.

Larson, Cedric.  “Censorship of Army News During the World War.” Journalism Quarterly 17 (December 1940): 313.

Lasswell, Harold D.  Propaganda Technique in the World War.  New York: Peter Smith, 1927.

Laurie, Clayton D. “‘The Chanting of Crusaders’: Captain Heber Blanklerhorn and AEF Combat Propaganda in World War I.” The Journal of Military History 59: 3 (July 1995): 457-481.

Linaman, Matthew.  “Home Away from Home: The Camp Dodger Newspaper and the Promotion of Troop Morale, 1917-1919.”  Annals of Iowa 76:4 (Fall 2017): 381-405.

Lorenz, Alfred L.  “Ralph W. Tyler: The Unknown Correspondent of World War I.”  Journalism History 31:1 (Spring 2005): 2-12.

Lynskey, Bill.  “Reinventing the First Amendment in Wartime Philadelphia.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 131:1 (January 2007): 33-80.   

McKible, Adam.  “We Return Fighting: Black Doughboys and the Battle of Representation.  American Periodicals 26:2 (2016): 167-182.

Marcellus, Jane. “Dear D’: Sophie Treadwell’s 1915 Correspondence from the ‘Big War Theatre.” American Journalism 29 (Fall 2012): 68–93.

Martin, Richard.  “The Great War and the Great Image: J.C. Leyendecker’s World War I Covers for the Saturday Evening Post.” Journal of American Culture 20: 1 (Spring 1997): 55-74.

Mastrangelo, Lisa.  “World War I, Public Intellectuals, and the Four Minute Men: Convergent Ideals of Public Speaking and Civic Participation.”  Rhetoric and Public Affairs 12:4 (2009): 607-633.

Millis, Walter.  The Road to War: America 1914-1917.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935.

Mock, James R.  Censorship, 1917.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1941.

Mock, James R., and Cedric Larson. Words That Won the War: The Story of the Committee on Public Information, 1917-1919. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1939.

Mould, David. “Donald Thompson: Photographer at War.” Kansas History (Autumn 1982): 154-167.  WWI, Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly.

Mulcrone, Mick. “‘Those Miserable Little Hounds’: World War I Censorship of the Irish World.”  Journalism History 20:1 (Spring 1994):15-24.

Nafziger, Ralph O.  “The American Press and Public Opinion During the World War, 1914 to April 1917.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1936.

Nibbe, Kevin L.  “The Greatest Opportunity: American Artists and the Great War.”  PhD dissertation, University of Texas, 2000.

Nichols, Jeff.  “Propaganda, Chicago Newspapers, and the Political Economy of Newsprint during the First World War.”  Journalism History 43:1 (Spring 2017): 21-31.

O’Keefe, Kevin.  A Thousand Deadlines:  The New York City Press and American Neutrality.  The Hague: Nijhoff, 1972.

Oukrop, Carol.  “The Four Minute Men Became a National Network During World War I.”  Journalism Quarterly 52 (Winter 1975): 632-637.

Palmer, Frederick.  With My Own Eyes.  Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932.   WWI

Peterson, H.C. “British Influence on the American Press, 1914-1918.” American Political Science Review 31:1 (February 1937): 79-88.

Ponder, Stephen.  “Presidential Publicity and Executive Power: Woodrow Wilson and the Centralization of Governmental Information.”  American Journalism 11:3 (Summer 1994): 257-269.

Ponder, Stephen.  “Popular Propaganda: The Food Administration in World War I.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72:3  (Autumn 1995): 539-550.

Pressman, Matthew. “Black and White and Red All Over?” Journalism History 39 (Spring 2013): 29–39.  Red Scare 1919

Rawls, Walton.  Wake Up, America!: World War I and the American Poster.  New York: Abbeville Press, 1988.

Read, James Morgan. Atrocity Propaganda, 1914-1919.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941.

Reed Winkler, Jonathan.  Nexus: Strategic Communications and American Security in World War I.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Sayer, John.  “Art and Politics, Dissent and Repression: The Masses Magazine Versus the Government, 1917-1918.”  American Journal of Legal History 32 (January 1988): 42-78.

Scheiber, Harry N.  The Wilson Administration and Civil Liberties.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Smith, Shane A. “The Crisis in the Great War: W. E. B. Du Bois and His Perception of African-American Participation in World War I.” Historian 70 (Summer 2008): 239–262.

Smith, Zachary.  Age of Fear: Othering and American Identity during World War I.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2019.

Startt, James D.  “Wilson’s Trip to Paris: Profile of a Press Response.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Winter 1969): 737-742.

Startt, James D.  Woodrow Wilson, the Great War, and the Fourth Estate.  College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2017.

Stephens, Rodney.  “Shattered Windows, German Spies, and Zigzag Trenches: World War I Through the Eyes of Richard Harding Davis.”  Historian 65:1 (Fall 2002): 43-74.

Stevens, John D.  “The Press and Community Toleration: Wisconsin in World War I.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Summer 1969): 255-259.

Sweeney, Michael S.  “Reporters and Willing Propagandists: AEF Correspondents Define Their Roles.” American Journalism 29:1 (Winter 2012): 7-31.

Thompson, John A.  Reformers and War: American Progressive Publicists and the First World War.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Van Nest, Austin R.  “The Black American Press: The Intersection of Race, Democracy, and War, 1914-1919.” PhD dissertation, Bowling Green State University, 2022.

Van Schaack, Eric.  “The Division of Pictorial Publicity in World War I.”  Design Issues 22 (Winter 2006): 32–45.

Vaughn, Stephen. Holding Fast the Inner Lines: Democracy, Nationalism and the Committee on Public Information. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Ward, Larry Wayne.  The Motion Picture Goes to War: The U.S. Government Film Efforts During World War I.  Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985.

Williams, Wythe.  Passed by the Censor.  New York: E.P. Dutton, 1916.   NY Times, WWI

Winkler, Jonathan Reed.  Nexus: Strategic Communications and American Security in World War I.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Wolper, Gregg. “Wilsonian Public Diplomacy: The Committee on Public Information in Spain.” Diplomatic History 17: 1 (Winter 1993): 17-34.

Zabriskie Doty, Madeleine.  Behind the Battle Line: Around the World 1918.  New York: Macmillan, 1918.  

Zacher, Dale E.  The Scripps Papers Go To War, 1914-18.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

World War II

Alexander, James Rodger. “The Art of Making War: The Political Poster in Global Conflict.” In Visions of War: World War II in Popular Literature and Culture, edited by M. Paul Holsinger. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press, 1992.

Alkebulan, Paul.  The African-American Press in World War II: Toward Victory at Home and Abroad.  Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

Allen, Ann.  “The News Media and the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps: Protagonists for a Cause.”  Military Affairs 50 (April 1986): 77-83.

Allen, Chris W. “Reporting World War II for the Local Audience: Jack Shelley’s Experience as a Local Radio Reporter in the European Theater.” American Journalism 17:1 (2000): 35–52.

Alves, Andre J., and Evan Roberts. “Rosie the Riveter’s Job Market: Advertising for Women Workers in World War II Los Angeles.” Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas 9 (Fall 2012): 53–68.

Amana, Harry.  “The Art of Propaganda: Charles Alston’s World War II Editorial Cartoons for the Office of War Information and the Black Press.”  American Journalism 21: 2 (Spring 2004): 79-111.

Beasley, Maurine. “Women and Journalism in World War II: Discrimination and Progress.” American Journalism 12, no. 3 (1995): 321–33.

Bentley, Amy.  Eating for Victory: Food Rationing and the Politics of Domesticity.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.

Berg, Thomas H.  “Silence Speeds Victory: The History of the United States Office of Censorship.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1999. 

Bernstein, Mark, and Alex Lubertozzi.  World War II on the Air: Edward R. Murrow and the Broadcasts That Riveted a Nation.  New York: Source Books/Mediafusion, 2003.

Blanchard, Margaret A. “Freedom of the Press in World War II: Historiographic Essay.” American Journalism 12 (Summer 1995): 342-358. 

Bishop, Robert L., and LaMar S. Mackay.  “Mysterious Silence, Lyrical Scream: Government Information in World War II.”  Journalism Monographs 19 (May 1971).

Bishop, Ronald.  “To Protect and Serve:  The ‘Guard Dog’ Function of Journalism in the Coverage of the Japanese-American Internment.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 2:2 (Summer 2000).

Bishop, Ronald, with Morgan Dudkewitz, Alissa Falcone, and Renee Daggett.  Community Newspapers and the Japanese-American Incarceration Camps: Community, Not Controversy.  Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

Blume, Lesley M. M.  Fallout: The Hiroshima Cover-up and the Reporter Who Revealed it to the World.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2020.

Boomhower, Ray E.  Dispatches from the Pacific: The World War II Reporting of Robert L.  Sherrod.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017.

Bourke-White, Margaret.  Purple Heart Valley: A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 1944.

Bourke-White, Margaret. Dear Fatherland, Rest Quietly: A Report on the Collapse of Hitler’s Thousand Years.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 1946.

Brady, Tim.  Death in San Pietro: The Untold Story of Ernie Pyle, John Huston, and the Fight for Purple Heart Valley.  Boston: Da Capo Press, 2013.

Braverman, Jordan.  To Hasten the Homecoming: How Americans Fought World War II Through the Media.  Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1996. 

Brewer, Susan A.  To Win the Peace: British Propaganda in the United States During World War II.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.   

Brinkley, David.  Washington Goes to War.  New York: Random House, 1988. 

Broussard, Jinx Coleman, and John Maxwell Hamilton.  “Covering a Two Front War: Three African American Correspondents During World War II.”  American Journalism 22:3 (Summer 2005): 33-54.

Buell, Hal.  Uncommon Valor, Common Virtue: Iwo Jima and the Photograph That Captured America.  New York: Berkley, 2006. 

Butcher, Harry C.  My Three Years with Eisenhower.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946. (CBS, US Army press liaison)

Carey, Michael Clay.  “Community Journalism in a Secret City: The Oak Ridge Journal, 1943-48.”  Journalism History 39:1 (Spring 2013): 2-14.

Carlson, Elliot.  Stanley Johnston’s Blunder: The Reporter Who Spilled the Secret Behind the U.S. Navy’s Victory at Midway.  Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2017.

Carson, Jeanie Cooper. “Interpreting National Identity in Time of War: Competing Views in U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) Photography, 1940-1945.”  PhD dissertation, Boston University, 1995.

Casey, Robert J.  I Can’t Forget: Personal Experiences of a War Correspondent in France, Luxemburg, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and England.  New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1941.  

Casey, Steven.  Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Public Opinion, and the War Against Nazi Germany.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Casey, Steven.  The War Beat, Europe: The American Media at War Against Nazi Germany.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Casey, Steven.  The War Beat, Pacific: The American Media at War Against Japan.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2021.

Chaisson Jr., Lloyd.  The Japanese American Encampment: An Editorial Analysis of 27 West Coast Newspapers.” Newspaper Research Journal 12 (Spring 1991): 92-107.

Chiasson, Lloyd. “Japanese-American Relocation During World War II: A Study of California Editorial Reactions.” Journalism Quarterly 68: 1-2 (1991): 263-268.

Charnley, Mitchell.  News by Radio. New York: Macmillan, 1948. 

Chrisinger, David.  The Soldier’s Truth: Ernie Pyle and the Story of World War II.  New York: Penguin, 2023.

Cleary, Johanna.  “Genet on the Air: Janet Flanner’s Wartime Broadcasts.”  Journalism History 35:1 (Spring 2009): 34-41. 

Coatney, Caryn. “From Burma Battles to the Bright Lights of Brisbane: How an Australian Wartime Prime Minister Won, Lost, and Recaptured American Journalists’ Support, 1941 to 1945.” Journalism History 40:4 (2015): 229-239.

Coleman, Penny.  Where the Action Was: Women Correspondents in World War II.  New York: Crown, 2002.

Collier, Richard.  Fighting Words: The War Correspondents of World War II.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.

Contreni, John J.  “A Story That Can’t be Printed: Ernie Pyle’s Ie Shima Memorial Dedication, Dealing with Men, and Military Journalism in the Mid-Pacific During World War II.”  Indiana Magazine of History111:3 (September 2015): 286-322.

Cook, Jeffrey B.  American World War II Correspondents.  Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2012.

Cooper, Caryl A.  “The Chicago Defender: Filling in the Gaps for the Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 23:1 (1999): 111-118.

Corbalis, Kathy J.  “Atomic Bill’ Laurence: He Reported the Birth of the A-Bomb.”  Media History Review 5:3 (Summer 1985): 9-11, 28-30.

Cozma, Raluca.  “Were the Murrow Boys Warmongers?”  Journalism Studies 16:3 (June 2015): 433-448.

Culbert, David H. “This is London: Edward R. Murrow, Radio News, and American Aid to Britain.” Journal of Popular Culture 10 (Summer 1976): 28-37.

Cull, Nicholas John.  Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign Against American Neutrality in World War II.  New York: Oxford University Press, 195. 

Curtin, Patricia A. “Press Coverage of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (Separate-Nisei): A Case Study in Agenda Building.” American Journalism 12, no. 3 (1995): 225–41.

Davis, Elmer, and Byron Price.  War Information and Censorship.  Washington DC: American Council on Public Affairs, 1943.

Davis, Elmer.  “Report to the President.”  edited by Ronald T. Farrar.  Journalism Monographs No. 7 (August 1968).  (reprint of official report of OWI in WWII)

Derdiger, Paula. “Letter From London: Millie Panter-Downes Brings World War to the New Yorker.” Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 12:2 (2021): 158-177.

Dower, John.  War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War.  New York: Pantheon, 1986. 

Dudziak, Mary L.  “You Didn’t See Him Lying…Beside the Gravel Road in France: Death, Distance, and American War Politics.” Diplomatic History 42:1 (January 2018): 1-16.   

Eberhard, Wallace B., ed.  “The Media and World War II: Special Issue.”  American Journalism 12:3 (Summer 1995). 

Edwards, John Carver.  Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich.  New York: Praeger, 1991.

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Honey, Maureen.  Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender, and Propaganda During World War II. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984. 

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Keever, Beverly Ann Deepe.  News Zero: The New York Times and the Bomb.  Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2004.

Keever, Beverly Ann Deepe. “Top Secret: Censoring the First Rough Drafts of Atomic-Bomb History.”  Media History (Abingdon) 14 (August 2008): 185–204.

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Lea, Tom.  The Two Thousand Yard Stare: Tom Lea’s World War II, ed. Brendan M. Greeley Jr. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2008. 

Lee, Mordecai.  Promoting the War Effort: Robert Horton and Federal Propaganda, 1938-1946.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.

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Loss, Christopher P.  “Reading Between Enemy Lines: Armed Services Editions and World War II.”  Journal of Military History 67:3 (July 2003): 811-834.

Lovelace, Alexander G.  “The Image of a General: The Wartime Relationship between General George S. Patton Jr. and the American Media.”  Journalism History 40 (Summer 2014): 180-120.

Lovelace, Alexander G.  The Media Offensive: How the Press and Public Opinion Shaped Allied Strategy During World War II.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2022.

Luckhurst, Tim.  “An Unworkable Policy Which Encourages the Enemy to Fight to the Last Gasp: The depiction in British and American newspapers of the Allied policy of unconditional surrender for Germany, 1943–1945.”  Journalism Studies 16:6 (December 2015): 887-903.

Luther, Catherine. “Reflections of Cultural Identities in Conflict: Japanese American Internment Camp Newspapers during World War II.” Journalism History 29:2 (Summer 2003): 69-81.

Mackrell, Judith.  The Correspondents: Six Women Writers on the Front Lines of World War II.  New York: Doubleday, 2021.

MacVane, John.  On the Air in World War II.  New York: Morrow, 1977.

Mallouli, Sofiene, and Michael S. Sweeney. “The Framing of North Africans by US Print Media During Operation Torch in World War II.”  Journalism History 45:1 (2019): 61-76.

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Maslowski, Peter. Armed With Camera: The American Military Photographers During World War II. New York: Free Press, 1993. 

May, Ernest.  “US Press Coverage of Japan, 1931-1941,” in Pearl Harbor as History, eds. Dorothy Borg and Shumpai Okamoto. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973.

McCallum, John.  “US Censorship, Violence, and Moral Judgement in a Wartime Democracy.”  Diplomatic History 41 (2017): 543-566.

McCreery, Stephen.  “The Journalistic Value of Emerging Technologies: American Press Reaction to Newsreels During World War II.” Journalism History 40: 3 (Fall 2014): 177-186.

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McLean Ward, Barbara, ed.  Produce & Conserve, Share & Play Square: The Grocer and the Consumer on the Homefront Battlefield During World War II.  Portsmouth, NH: Strawberry Banke Museum, 1994.

McNamara, John. Extra!  U.S. War Correspondents in the Fighting Fronts.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946.

Mendelson, Andrew, and C. Zoe Smith.  “Part of the Team: Life Photographers and their Symbiotic Relationship with the Military During World War II.”  American Journalism 12:3 (Summer 1995): 276-289. 

Mizuno, Takeya. “Government Suppression of the Japanese Language in World War II Assembly Camps.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 80:4 (Winter 2003): 849-865.

Mizuno, Takeya.  “The Federal Government’s Decisions in Suppressing the Japanese-Language Press, 1941-42.  Journalism History 33 (Spring 2007): 14-23. 

Mizuno, Takeya. “The Creation of the ‘Free’ Press in Japanese-American Camps: The War Relocation Authority’s Planning and Making of Camp Newspaper Policy.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 78:3 (Autumn 2001): 503-518.

Mizuno, Takeya. “A Disturbing and Ominous Voice from a Different Shore: Japanese Radio Propaganda and Its Impact on the U.S. Government’s Treatment of Japanese Americans during World War II.” The Japanese Journal of American Studies 24 (2013): 105–124.

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Moffett, Albert E.  “Hometown Radio in 1942: The Role of Local Stations During the First Year of Total War.”   American Journalism 3 (1986): 87-98. 

Morlan, Don B. “Slapstick Contributions to WW II Propaganda: The Three Stooges and Abbott and Costello.” Studies in Popular Culture 17.1 (1994) 29-43.  

Moseley, Ray.  Reporting War: How Foreign Correspondents Risked Capture, Torture and Death to Cover World War II.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

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Nagorski, Andrew.  Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise of Power.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012. (includes several American journalists)

Nagy, Alex.  “World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.”  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 207-213. 

Nemerov, Alexander. Icons of Grief: Val Lewton’s Home Front Pictures. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. 

Nichols, David, ed.  Ernie’s War: The Best of Ernie Pyle’s World War II Dispatches.  New York: Random House, 1986.

Noack, Thorsten, and Fred Flatow.  “William L. Shirer and International Awareness of the Nazi ‘Euthanasia’ Program.”  Holocaust and Genocide Studies 30:3 (Winter 2016): 433-457.

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Paris, Michael, ed.  Repicturing the Second World War: Representations in Film and Television.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. 

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Perry, Earnest Lee Jr.  “Voice of Consciousness: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association During World War II.” PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1998.

Perry Jr., Earnest L.  “It’s Time to Force a Change: The African-American Press’ Campaign for a True Democracy During World War II.” Journalism History 28:2 (Summer 2002): 85-95.

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Philps, Alan.  The Red Hotel: Moscow 1941, the Metropol Hotel, and the Untold Story of Stalin’s Propaganda War.  New York: Pegasus Books, 2023.

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Pratt, Fletcher.  “How the Censors Rigged the News.”  Harper’s (February 1946): 97-105.  

Pratte, Alf. “The Honolulu Star-Bulletin and the ‘Day of Infamy.’“ American Journalism 5 (1988): 5–13.

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Robinson, Greg, ed.  Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Roeder, George.  The Censored War: American Visual Experience During World War II.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. 

Romeiser, John B., ed.  Beachhead Don: Reporting the War from the European Theater, 1942-1945.  New York: Fordham University Press, 2004.  (Don Whitehead)

Romeiser, John B., ed.  Combat Reporter: Don Whitehead’s World War II Diary and Memoirs. New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.

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Russell, Edmund P.  “Speaking of Annihilation: Mobilizing for War Against Insect and Human Enemies, 1914-1945.”  Journal of American History 82 (March 1996): 1505-1529.

Ryan, Kathleen M. “Military Life: Coordinating WWII Magazine Publicity by the U.S. Naval Women’s Reserve.” Journalism History 40:4 (2015): 217-228.

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Schiffrin, André.   Dr. Seuss and Co. Go to War: The World War II Editorial Cartoons of America’s Leading Comic Artists. New York: New Press, 2009. 

Seib, Philip.  Broadcasts from the Blitz: How Edward R. Murrow Helped Lead America into War.  Washington DC: Potomac Books, 2006.

Sentman, Mary Alice, and Patrick S. Washburn.  “How Excess Profits Tax Brought Ads to Black Newspapers in World War II.”  Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 769-774.

Sevaraid, Eric.  Not So Wild a Dream.  New York: Knopf, 1946.

Shirer, William L.  Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941.  New York: Knopf, 1941.

Shirer, William L.  The Nightmare Years, 1930-1940.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1984.

Shulman, Holly Cowan.  Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy, 1941-1945.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. 

Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca.  “Variety for the Servicemen: The Jubilee Show and the Paradox of Racializing Radio During World War II.”  American Quarterly 56:4 (December 2004): 945-973.

Slattery, Karen and Mark Doremus. “Suppressing Allied Atrocity Stories: The Unwritten Clause of the World War II Censorship Code.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 89:4 (2012): 624-642.

Somers, Paul.  “Right in the Fuhrer’s Face: American Editorial Cartoons of the World War II Period.”  American Journalism 13:3 (Summer 1996): 333-353. 

Sorel, Nancy Caldwell.  The Women Who Wrote the War.  New York: Arcade Publishing, 1999. 

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Smith, A. Merriman.  Thank You, Mister President: A White House Notebook.  New York: Harper & Brothers, 1946. 

Smith, Henry Justin.  Deadlines: Being the Quaint, the Amusing, the Tragic Memoirs of a News-Room.  Chicago: Covici-McGee, 1923.

Snyder, Louis L., ed.  Masterpieces of War Reporting: The Great Moments of World War II.  New York: Julian Messner, 1962.

Spiller, James.  “This is War! Network Radio and World War II Propaganda in America.” Journal of Radio Studies 11:1 (2004): 55-72. 

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Steele, Richard W.  “News of the Good War: World War II News Management.” Journalism Quarterly 62:4 (Winter 1985): 707-716, 783.

Steele, Richard W. Propaganda in an Open Society: The Roosevelt Administration and the Media, 1933-1941. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Steele, Richard W.  Free Speech in the Good War. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Steinbeck, John.  Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team. New York: Viking, 1942.

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Sterne, Joseph R. L. Combat Correspondents: The Baltimore Sun in World War II. Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society, 2009.

Stevens, John D.  “From the Back of the Foxhole: Black Correspondents in World War II.” Journalism Monographs 27 (February 1973).

Sullivan, Christopher C. “John Steinbeck, War Reporter: Fiction, Journalism, and Types of Truth.” Journalism History23:1 (Spring 1997): 16-23.

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Sweeney, Michael S.  Secrets of Victory: The Office of Censorship and the American Press and Radio in World War II.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Sweeney, Michael S., and Patrick S. Washburn.  “Ain’t Justice Wonderful:  The Chicago Tribune’s Battle of Midway Story and the Government’s Attempt at an Espionage Act Indictment in 1942.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 16:1 (Spring 2014): 7-97.

Sweeney, Michael S., ed.  NBC Goes to War: The Diary of Radio Correspondent James Cassidy from London to the Bulge.  New York: Fordham University Press, 2022.

Szasz, Ferenc Morton. “Pamphlets Away: The Allied Propaganda Campaign Over Japan During the Last Months of World War II.” Journal of Popular Culture 42:3 (2009): 530-540.

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Takahara, Kumiko.  Off the Fat of the Land: The Denver Post’s Story of the Japanese American Internment During World War II.  Phoenix: Western History Press, 2003.

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Tobin, James E.  “Why We Fight: Versions of the American Purpose in World War II.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1986.

Tobin, James.  Ernie Pyle’s War: America’s Eyewitness to World War Two.  New York: Free Press, 1997. 

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Wallerstein, Alex.  Restricted Data: The History of Nuclear Secrecy in the United States.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2021. First part deals with WWII/Manhattan Project. 

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Washburn, Patrick S.  A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government’s Investigation of the Black Press During World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. 

Washburn, Patrick S.  “The Pittsburgh Courier’s Double V Campaign of 1942.” Journalism History 3:2 (1986): 73. 

Washburn, Patrick S. “The Office of Censorship’s Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb During World War II.” Journalism Monographs, No. 120 (1990). 

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Winkler, Jonathan Reed.  “Blurred Lines: National Security and the Civil-Military Struggle for Control of Telecommunications Policy During World War II.”  Information & Culture 51:4 (2016): 500-531.

Zox-Weaver, Annalisa.  “When the War Was in Vogue: Lee Miller’s War Reports.”  Women’s Studies 32:2 (2003): 131-163.

The Korean War

Bigart, Homer.  Forward Positions: The War Correspondence of Homer Bigart.  Betsy Wade, ed.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992.

Capraro, Michael.  “Care and Feeding of the Press in Korea.”  Military History (April 1994).

Casey, Steven.  Selling the Korean War: Propaganda, Politics, and Public Opinion in the United States, 1950-1953.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Casey, Steven. “Wilfred Burchett and the United Nations Command’s Media Relations during the Korean War, 1951–1952.” Journal of Military History 74 (July 2010): 821–845.

Cash, Dane J. “The Forgotten Debate: American Political Opinion Journals and the Korean War, 1950–1953.”  PhD dissertation, Boston University, 2012.

Cash, Dane J. “‘History Has Begun a New Chapter’: U.S. Political-Opinion Journals and the Outbreak of the Korean War.” International History Review 36 (June 2014): 395–418.

Fazio, Daniel. “Censorship in the Korean War: Press—Military Relations, June 1950—January 1951.”  Australasian Journal of American Studies 26 (December 2007): 1–19.

Goulden, Joseph.  Korea: The Untold Story of the War.  New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.

Higgins, Marguerite.  War in Korea: The Report of a Woman Combat Correspondent.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1951.

Hoberecht, Earnest.  Asia is My Beat.  Rutland, VT: Tuttle, 1961. 

Horrell, Mason Edward.  “Reporting the Forgotten War: Military-Press Relations in Korea, 1950-1954.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2002.

Huebner, Andrew J.  “Kilroy is Back: Images of American Soldiers in Korea, 1950-1953.”  American Studies 45 (Spring 2004): 103-129.

Hymoff, Edward.  “The Fallen Reporters in the Forgotten War: 18 Who Died in Korea.”  Media History Digest 10:2 (Fall-Winter 1990): 12-20, 40.

Kim, Sun-A “Life and War in Korea: Photographic Portrayals of the Korean War in Life Magazine, July 1950–August 1953.”  PhD dissertation , University of Missouri, Columbia, 2008.

Lee, Raymond S.H.  “Early Korean War Coverage.”  Journalism Quarterly 55 (Winter 1978): 789-92.

Mitchell, Franklin D.  Harry S. Truman and the News Media. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1998.

Osmer, Harold H.  U.S. Religious Journalism and the Korean War.  Washington DC: University Press of America, 1980.

Shinn, Bill.  The Forgotten War Remembered, Korea 1950-1953.  Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International, 1995.

Wiltz, John E.  “The Korean War and American Society.”  In The Korean War: A 25 Year Retrospective.  Francis H. Heller, ed.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1977.

Youm, Kyo Ho. “Press Policy of the U.S. Military Government in Korea.” American Journalism 8, no. 2–3 (1991): 160–77.

The Vietnam War

Adams, Anthony A.  “A Study of Veteran Viewpoints on TV Coverage of the Vietnam War.”  Journalism Quarterly 54 (Summer 1977): 248-253.

Allman, T.D.  “PBS’s Vietnam: How TV Caught the Unprintable Truth.”  Channels of Communication (Nov.-Dec. 1983): 10. 

Altschuler, Bruce E.  LBJ and the Polls.  Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1990.

Anderegg, Michael, ed.  Inventing Vietnam: The War in Film and Television.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Apuzzo, Jessica N.  “Mary McCarthy on the Vietnam War.”  MA thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 2008.

Arlen, Michael  J.  The Living Room War.  New York: Viking, 1979. 

Arnett, Peter.  “Tet Coverage: A Debate Renewed.”  Columbia Journalism Review 16 (January-February 1978): 44-47. 

Arnett, Peter.  Saigon Has Fallen.  New York: Rosetta Press, 2015.

Bailey, Beth.  “The Army in the Marketplace: Recruiting an All-Volunteer Force.”  Journal of American History 94:1 (June 2007): 47-74.  (recruitment advertising) 

Bailey, George A., and Lawrence W. Lichty.  “Rough Justice on a Saigon Street: A Gatekeeper Study of NBC’s Tet Execution Film.” Journalism Quarterly (Summer 1972): 274.

Bailey, George.  “Television War: Trends in Network Coverage of the Vietnam War.”  Journal of Broadcasting 20 (Spring 1976): 147-156.

Bailey, George.  “Interpretive Reporting of the Vietnam War by Anchormen.”  Journalism Quarterly 53 (Summer 1976): 319-323.

Barden, Thomas E.,ed.  Steinbeck in Vietnam: Dispatches from the War.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2012.

Bartimus, Tad, ed.  War Torn: Stories of War from the Women Who Covered Vietnam.  New York: Random House, 2002.

Bass, Thomas A.  The Spy Who Loved Us: The Vietnam War and Pham Xuan An’s Dangerous Game. New York: Public Affairs, 2009.

Becker, Elizabeth.  You Don’t Belong Here: How Three Women Rewrote the Story of War.  New York: Public Affairs Press, 2021.

Berman, Larry.  Perfect Spy: The Incredible Double Life of Pham Xuan.  New York: Smithsonian Books, 2007.  [Vietnam]

Bindas, Kenneth J.  “The Strains of Commitment: American Periodical Press and South Vietnam, 1955-1960.” Journalism History 17:3 (Summer 1989): 63-70. 

Blanchard, Ralph W.  “The Newsman in Vietnam: Responsible or Irresponsible?” Naval War College Review 20:11 (June 1968): 14-42.

Blissert, Julie Harrison. “Guerilla Journalist: I.F. Stone and Tonkin.” Journalism History 23:3 (Summer 1997): 102-113. 

Born, Donna J.  “The Reporting of American Woman Correspondents from the Vietnam War.”  PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, 1987.

Braestrup, Peter.  The Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977. 

Braestrup, Peter, ed.  Vietnam as History.  Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, 1984.

Braestrup, Peter.  Battle Lines: Report of the 20th Century Fund Task Force on the Military and the Media.  New York: Priority, 1985.

Brewin, Bob, and Sydney Shaw.  Vietnam of Trial: Westmoreland vs CBS.  New York: Atheneum, 1987.

Browne, Malcom W.  “Vietnam Reporting: Three Years of Crisis.”  Columbia Journalism Review (Fall 1964): 4-9.

Burrows, Larry.  Larry Burrows: Vietnam.  New York: Knopf, 2002. 

Chandler, Robert W.  War of Ideas: The US Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam.  Boulder: Westview Press, 1981.

Culbert, David. “Television’s Vietnam and Historical Revisionism in the United States.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 8 (1988): 253-267. 

Daddis, Gregory A.  Pulp Vietnam: War and Gender in Cold War Men’s Adventure Magazines.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Deakin, James.  Johnson’s Credibility Gap.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1968.

Devine, Jeremy M.  Vietnam at 24 Frames a Second.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1995.

Eldridge, Lawrence A.  “Chronicles of a Two-Front War: The African American Press and the Vietnam War.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois-Chicago, 2002.

Elegant, Robert. “How to Lose a War: Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent.”  Encounter (August 1981): 73-86.

Elwood-Akers, Virginia.  Women War Correspondents of the Vietnam War, 1961-1975.  Mutuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988.

Emery, Edwin.  “The Press in the Vietnam Quagmire.”  Journalism Quarterly 48 (Winter 1971): 619-626.

Erskine, Hazel.  “The Polls: Is War a Mistake?”  Public Opinion Quarterly 34 (Spring 1970): 134.

Espiritu, Yen Le.  “The ‘We-Win-Even-When-We-Lose’ Syndrome: U.S. Press Coverage of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the ‘Fall of Saigon.”  American Quarterly 58 (June 2006): 329–52.

Faas, Horst:  Requiem: By the Photographers who Died in Vietnam and Indochina.  New York: Random House, 1997.

Faulkner, Francis Donald.  “Bao Chi: The American News Media in Vietnam, 1960-1975.”  PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1981.

Fawcett, Denby.  War Torn: Stories of War from the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam.  New York: Random House, 2002.

Ferguson, Alex.  “Press Management and U.S. Support for France in Indochina, 1950-1954.”  Diplomatic History 42:2(April 2018):  228-253.

Gelb, Leslie H.  “The Essential Domino: American Politics and Vietnam.”  Foreign Affairs 50:3 (April 1972): 459-475.

Gershen, Martin.  “The Right to Lie.”  Columbia Journalism Review (Winter 1966-67): 14-15.

Ghilani, Jessica.  “Glamour-izing Military Service: Army Recruitment for Women in Vietnam-Era Advertisements.”  American Journalism 34:2 (Spring 2017): 210-228.

Goulden, Joseph C.  Truth is the First Casualty: The Gulf of Tonkin Affair- Illusion and Reality.  Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.

Halberstam, David.  “The Ugliest American in Vietnam.” Esquire (November 1964): 114-117, 37-40 (yes, the conclusion of this article is printed earlier in the issue).  John Paul Vann

Halberstam, David.  The Making of a Quagmire.  New York: Random House, 1965.

Hallin, Daniel C. The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. 

Hammond, William M.  Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962-1968.  Washington DC: Center for Military History, US Government Printing Office, 1988.

Hammond, William M..  “The Press in Vietnam as an Agent of Defeat: A Critical Examination.”  Reviews in American History (June 1989): 312-323.

Hammond, William M.  Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1968-1973.  Washington DC: Center for Military History, US Government Printing Office, 1996.

Hammond, William M.  Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1998. 

Hammond, William M. “The Tet Offensive and the News Media” Army History 70 (Winter 2009) 6–16. 

Hargrove, Elaine.  “The My Lai Massacre and the Press: An Evaluation of the Press in Reporting a National Disgrace.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2012.

Hariman, Robert, and John Louis Lucaites. “Photographing the Vietnam War—Democratic Accountability and Liberal Representation in American Iconic Photography: The Image of ‘Accidental Napalm,’” in American Visual Cultures, ed. David Holloway and John Beck.  New York: Continuum, 2005.

Hersh, Seymour.   “How I Broke the My Lai Story.”  Saturday Review 53 (11 July 1970): 46-49. 

Herz, Martin F.  The Prestige Press and the Christmas Bombing, 1972: Images and Reality in Vietnam.  Washington DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1980.

Hirashiki, Tasutsune.  On the Front Lines of the Television War: A Legendary War Cameraman in Vietnam.  Philadelphia: Casemate, 2017.   

Hoffman, Joyce.  On Their Own: Women Journalists and the Vietnam War.  New York: DaCapo Press, 2008.

Huebner, Andrew J.  “Rethinking American Press Coverage of the Vietnam War, 1965-1968.”  Journalism History 31:3 (Fall 2005): 150-161.

Isaacs, Norman.  “The New Credibility Gap- Readers vs. the Press.”  Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. (February 1969).

Johnson, DeWayne B.  “Vietnam: Report Card on the Press at War.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 9-19.

Keever, Beverly Deepe.  Death Zones and Darling Spies: Seven Years of Vietnam War Reporting.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013.

Keith, Jeffrey A.  “Between the Paris of the Orient and Ho Chi Minh City: Imaginings and Reportage in Wartime Saigon, 1954-1975.” PhD dissertation, University of Kentucky, 2011.

King, William M.  “Our Men in Vietnam: Black Media as a Source of the African American Experience in Southeast Asia.” Vietnam Generation 1:2 (1989): 94-117.

Kinnard, Douglas.  The War Managers.  Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1977.

Kinney, Katherine.  Friendly Fire: American Images of the Vietnam War.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kodosky, Robert J. “The Joint United States Public Affairs Office on Vietnam: The Truth and Consequences of American Psychological Operations.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2006.

Koncewicz, Michael.  “Reporting from Behind Enemy Lines: How the National Guardian and Liberation Brought Vietnam to the American Left.”  American Journalism 35:2 (Spring 2018): 196-213.

Kozloff, Nikolas. “Vietnam, the African American Community, and the Pittsburgh New Courier.” Historian 63:3 (Spring 2001): 521-538.

Krog, Carl.  “American Journals of Opinion and the Fall of Vietnam, 1954.” Asian Affairs 6 (1979): 324-332.

Lair, Meredith H.  Armed with Abundance: Consumerism and Soldiering in the Vietnam War.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Landers, James.  “The Specter of Stalemate: Vietnam War Perspectives in Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News and World Report, 1965-1968.”  American Journalism 19 (Summer 2002): 13-38.

Landers, James.  The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004.  

Lawrence, Mark Atwood.  “Mission Intolerable: Harrison Salisbury’s Trip to Hanoi and the Limits of Dissent against the Vietnam War.”  Pacific Historical Review 75 (August 2006): 429–459.

Laurence, John.  The Cat From Hue: A Vietnam War Story.  New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002.

Lefever, Ernest W., Leslie Rider, and Martin F. Hertz.  The Prestige Press and the Christmas Bombing, 1972: Images and Reality.  Washington DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1980.

Lewes, James G.  “Protest and Survive: An Analysis of the Influence of GI-Produced Underground Newspapers in the United States During the Vietnam War.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 2000.

Lewes, James.  Protest and Survive: Underground GI Newspapers during the Vietnam War.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.

Lippmann, Walter.  “The Credibility Gap- I.”  Washington Post (28 March 1967) and “The Credibility Gap- II.” Washington Post (30 March 1967).

Logevall, Fredrik.  “First Among Critics: Walter Lippmann and the Vietnam War.”  Journal of American-East Asian Relations 4:4 (1995): 351-375.

Lucas, Jim G.  Dateline: Vietnam.  New York: Award House, 1966.

McClancy, Kathleen.  “The Iconography of Violence: Television, Vietnam, and the Soldier Hero.”  Film and History 43:2 (Fall 2013): 50-66.

McGaffin, William, and Erwin Knoll.  Anything But the Truth: The Credibility Gap- How the News in Managed in Washington.  New York: Putnam, 1968.

MacDonald, Glenn.  Report or Distort?   New York: Exposition Press, 1973.

Mandelbaum, Michael.  “Vietnam: The Television War.”  Daedalus 111: 4 (Fall 1982): 157-169.

Mascaro, Thomas A. “The Peril of an Unheeded Warning: Robert F. Rogers’ Vietnam: It’s a Mad War.” Journalism History 28:4 (Winter 2003):182-190.  

Mascaro, Thomas A.  “Flaws in the Benjamin Report: The Internal Investigation into CBS Reports’ Documentary “The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception.”  Journalism History 31:2 (Summer 2005): 58-74.

Mecklin, John.  Mission in Torment.  New York: Doubleday, 1965.  (press spokesman for US Embassy in S. Vietnam)

Milam, Ron, ed.  The Vietnam War in Popular Culture: The Influence of America’s Most Controversial War on Everyday Life. 2 vols.  Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2017.

Minor, Dale.  The Information War. New York: Hawthorne, 1970. 

Mohr, Charles.  “Once Again- Did the Press Lose Vietnam?”  Columbia Journalism Review 22 (November 1983): 51-56. 

Moss, George D.  A Vietnam Reader.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.  see “News or Nemesis: Did Television Lose the Vietnam War?”  pp. 245-300. 

Mueller, John E.  War, Presidents, and Public Opinion.  New York: Wiley, 1973.

News Policies in Vietnam: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 17 August and 31 August, 1966.  Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1966.

Nudelman, Franny.  “Marked for Demolition: Mary McCarthy’s Vietnam Journalism.”  American Literature 85:2 (June 2013): 363-387.

Olson, James S., and Randy Roberts.  My Lai: A Brief History with Documents.  Boston: Bedford Books, 1998.

Orwant, Jack E., and John Ullman.  “Pentagon Officers’ Attitudes on Reporting of Military News.”  Journalism Quarterly 51 (1974): 463-469.

Pach, Chester J., Jr. “And That’s the Way it Was: The Vietnam War on the Network Nightly News.” in The Sixties: From Memory to History, David Farber, ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. 

Pach, Chester. “‘Our Worst Enemy Seems to Be the Press’: tv News, the Nixon Administration, and U.S. Troop Withdrawal from Vietnam, 1969–1973.” Diplomatic History 34 (June 2010): 555–565.

Page, Tim.  “Vietnam through the Lens of Larry Burrows.”  Quarterly Journal of Military History  22:3 (Spring 2010): 72-83.

Patterson, Oscar. “Television’s Living Room War in Print: Vietnam in the News Magazines.” Journalism Quarterly 61 (Spring 1984): 36-39.

Patterson, Oscar.  “An Analysis of Television Coverage of the Vietnam War.”  Journal of Broadcasting 28 (Fall 1984): 397-404. 

Phu, Thy. Warring Visions: Photography and Vietnam.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2022.

Prochnau, William.  Once Upon a Distant War: Young War Correspondents and the Early Vietnam Battles.  New York: Times Books, 1995.

Proctor, Pat. “Message versus Perception during the Americanization of the Vietnam War.” Historian 73 (Spring 2011): 88–112.

Rabe, Robert A., James Landers, Chester Pach, and Michael Sweeney. “Historical Roundtable: Mass Media and the Vietnam War.” Historiography in Mass Communication 4: 2 (March 2018): 7-22.

Reporting Vietnam: American Journalism, 1959-1975.  2 vols.  New York: Library of America, 1998. (anthology of wartime writing) 

Reston, James B.  “The Press, the President, and Foreign Policy.”  Foreign Affairs 44:4 (July 1966): 553-573.

Roberts, Mervyn E. “Let the Dogs Bark: The Psychological War in Vietnam, 1960-1968.” PhD dissertation, University of North Texas, 2016.

Rottinghaus, Brandon.  “Following the ‘Mail Hawks’: Alternative Measures of Public Opinion on Vietnam in the Johnson White House.” Public Opinion Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 2007): 367-391.

Salisbury, Harrison.  Behind the Lines.  New York: Harper and Row, 1967. 

Schmitz, David F.  The Tet Offensive: Politics, War, and Public Opinion.  Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Seyb, Ronald.  “When Objectivity Works: David Halberstam’s Vietnam Reporting.”  Media History Monographs 15:1 (2012-2013): 1-25.

Sherer, Michael D.  “Comparing Magazine Photos of the Vietnam and Korean Wars.”  Journalism Quarterly 65 (Fall 1988): 752-756.

Sherer, Michael D.  “Vietnam War Photos and Public Opinion.”  Journalism Quarterly 66 (Summer 1989): 391-395.

Showalter, Stuart.  “American Magazine Coverage of Objectors to the Vietnam War.” Journalism Quarterly 53:4 (1976): 648-652, 688.

Sidle, Winant.  “The Role of Journalists in Vietnam: An Army General’s Perspective”  in Harrison E. Salisbury, ed. Vietnam Reconsidered.  New York: Harper, 1984. 

Singer, Benjamin D.  “Violence, Protest, and War in Television News: The US and Canada Compared.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 34:4 (Winter 1970-1971): 611-616.

Small, Melvin.  Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds.  Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002. 

Steinman, Ron.  Inside Television’s First War: A Saigon Journal.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002.  (NBC Saigon bureau chief)

Tallman, Gary C., and Joseph P. McKerns.  “Press Mess: David Halberstam, the Buddhist Crisis, and US Policy in Vietnam, 1963.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 2:3 (Fall 2000).

Taylor, Sandra C.  “Reporting History: Journalists and the Vietnam War,” Reviews in American History 13:3 (September 1985): 451-461.

Turner, Kathleen J. Lyndon Johnson’s Dual War: Vietnam and the Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.  

United States Senate.  Committee on Foreign Relations.  Harrison E. Salisbury’s trip to North Vietnam. Hearing, Ninetieth Congress, first session, February 2, 1967.  Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1967.

Wade, Walter Patrick. “A Degree of Disillusion: News Media, Photojournalism, and Visual Narratives of the Vietnam War.” PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, 2013. Wartime

Walter Flowers, Jackie.  “Life in Vietnam: The Presentation of the Vietnam War in Life Magazine, 1962-1972.”  PhD dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1996.

Welch, Susan. “The American Press in Indochina, 1950-56,” in Communication in International Politics, ed. Richard L. Merritt (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972), 207-231

Werner, Gary LeRoy.  “The Credibility Gap- 1966: Prestige Gatekeepers View Government Handling of Vietnam Information.”  Phd dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1967.

Westmoreland, William C.  A Soldier Reports.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1976. 

Westwell, Guy. “Accidental Napalm Attack and Hegemonic Visions of America’s War in Vietnam.”  Critical Studies in Media Communication 28 (December 2011): 407–423.

Wyatt, Clarence.  Paper Soldiers: The American Press and the Vietnam War. New York: Norton, 1993.

Wyatt, Clarence R. “The Media and the Vietnam War,” in The War That Never Ends: New Perspectives on the Vietnam War. ed. David L. Anderson and John Ernst, 265–87. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007. 

Ziedenberg, Leonard.  “Vietnam and Electronic Journalism: Lessons of the Living Room War.” Broadcasting (19 May 1975): 23-30

The Persian Gulf War

Barody, Judith R.  “Being There: United States Media Access During the Gulf War.”  PhD dissertation, American University, 1992.

Bennett, W. Lance, and David L. Paletz, eds.  Taken by Storm: The Media, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf War.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Dennis, Everette E., et al.  The Media at War: The Press and the Persian Gulf Conflict.  New York: The Freedom Forum, 1991.

Denton, Robert E.  The Media and the Persian Gulf War.  Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1993.

Fialka, John.  Hotel Warriors: Covering the Gulf War.  Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1992.

Greenberg, Bradley S., and Walter Gantz, eds.  Desert Storm and the Mass Media.  Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1993.

Kellner, Douglas.  The Persian Gulf TV War.  Boulder: Westin Press, 1992.

MacArthur, John R.  Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War.  New York: Hill and Wang, 1992.

Mueller, John.  Policy and Opinion in the Gulf War.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Otteson, R.  “The Media and the Gulf War Reporting: Advertising for the Arms Industry?” Bulletin of Peace Proposals 23 (March 1992): 71-83. 

Pentagon Rules on Media Access to the Persian Gulf War.  Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, 20 February 1991.  Washington DC: Governemtn Printing Office, 1991.

Rahdert, Mark C.  “The First Amendment and Media Rights During Wartime: Some Thoughts After the Gulf War.”  Villanova Law Review 36 (November 1991): 1513-1558.

Smith, Hedrick, ed.  The Media and the Gulf War.  Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 1992.

Smith, John E.  “From the Front Lines to the Front Page: Media Access to the War in the Persian Gulf and Beyond.”  Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 26 (Winter 1993): 291-339.

Wiener, Robert.  Live from Baghdad: Gathering News at Ground Zero.  New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Zelizer, Barbie.  “CNN, the Gulf War, and Journalistic Practice.”  Journal of Communication 42:1

Other Conflicts

Beck, Robert J.  The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decision Making.  Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.

Engber, John B.  “The Press and the Invasion of Grenada: Does the First Amendment Guarantee the Press a Right of Access to Wartime News?”  Temple Law Quarterly 58 (Winter 1985): 873-901.

Pincus, Roger W.  “Press Access to Military Operations: Grenada and the Need for a New Analytical Approach.”  University of Pennsylvania Law Review 135 (March 1987): 813-850.

Teel, Leonard Ray.  Reporting the Cuban Revolution: How Castro Manipulated American Journalists.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2015.

War Correspondents and Military Journalism

Allen, Douglas.  Frederic Remington and the Spanish American War.  New York: Crown Publishers, 1971.

Allen, Stuart, and Barbie Zelizer, eds.  Reporting War: Journalism in Wartime.  New York: Routledge, 2004.

Anders, Leslie.  “Retrospect: Four Decades of American Military Journalism.” Military Affairs 41:2 (April 1977): 62-66.

Anderson, Harold M.  “The American Newspaper- The War Correspondent.”  Bookman 19 (March 1904): 24-41.

Arnot, Charles P.  Don’t Kill the Messenger: The Tragic Story of Welles Hangen and other Journalistic Combat Victims.  New York: Vantage Press, 1994.

Aukofer, Frank, and William P. Lawrence.  America’s Team- Odd Couple: A Report on the Relationship Between the Media and the Military.  Nashville: Freedom Forum, 1995.

Badsey, Stephen.  “The Depiction of War Reporters in Hollywood Feature Films from the Vietnam War to the Present.”  Film History 14:3/4 (2002): 243-260.

Borchard, Gregory, Lawrence J. Mullen, and Stephen Bates. “From Realism to Reality: The Advent of War Photography.” Journalism and Communication Monographs 15:2 (June 2013): 66-107.

Braestrup, Peter.  Battle Lines.  New York: Priority Press, 1985. 

Brown, Charles H.  The Correspondents’ War: Journalists and the Spanish-American War.  New York: Scribner’s, 1967.

Bullard, F. Lauriston.  Famous War Correspondents.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1914.

Capa, Robert.  Images of War.  New York: Grossman, 1964.

Carruthers, Susan L. The Media at War: Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999.

Casswell, Lucy S.  “Drawing Swords: War in American Editorial Cartoons.”  American Journalism 21 (Spring 2004): 13-45.

Cooke, John Byrne.  Reporting the War: Freedom of the Press from the American Revolution to the War on Terror.  New York: Palgrave, 2007.

Copeland, David, ed.  The Greenwood Library of American War Reporting.  8 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Cornebise, Alfred Emile.  Ranks and Columns: Armed Forces Newspapers in American Wars. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Desmond, Robert W.  Tides of War: World News Reporting, 1940-1945.  Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1984.

Eberhard, Wallace.  “From Balloon Bombs to H-Bombs: Mass Media and National Security.”  Military Review 61 (February 1981): 2-8.

Edy, Carolyn M.  “Conditions of Acceptance: The United States Military, the Press, and the Woman War Correspondent, 1846-1945.” PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

Edy, Carolyn M.  The Woman War Correspondent, the U.S. Military, and the Press, 1846-1947.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2017.

Edy, Carolyn.  “Trust but Verify: Myths and Misinformation in the History of Women War Correspondents.” American Journalism 36:2 (Spring 2019): 242-251.

Elmore, Cindy. “Stars and Stripes: A Unique American Newspaper’s Historical Struggle against Military Interference and Control.” Media History 16 (August 2010): 301–317.

Elwood-Akers, Virginia.  Women War Correspondents of the Vietnam War, 1961-1975.  Mutuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988.

Emery, Michael.  On the Front Lines: Following America’s Foreign Correspondents Across the Twentieth Century. Washington DC: American University Press, 1995.

Fainberg, Dina.  “A Portrait of a Journalist as a Cold War Expert: Harrison Salisbury.” Journalism History 41:3 (Fall 2015): 153-164.

Ferrari, Michelle, and James Tobin.  Reporting America at War: An Oral History.  New York: Hyperion, 2003.

Fialka, John.  Hotel Warriors: Covering the Gulf War.  Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1992.

Fletcher, James E., and Phillip E. Soucy.  “Army Public Affairs Officers as Perceived by Press and Military Colleagues.”  Journalism Quarterly 60 (1983): 93-98.

Furneaux, Rupert.  News of War: Stories and Adventures of the Great War Correspondents.  London: Max Parrish, 1964.

Gallez, Douglas W.  “Pictorial Journalism at War.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Autumn 1970): 493-499.

Good, Howard.  “The Image of War Correspondents in Anglo-American Fiction.”  Journalism Monographs 97 (July 1986).

Goulden, Joseph C.  Truth is the First Casualty.  New York: Rand McNally, 1969.

Griffin, Michael. “Media Images of War.” Media, War & Conflict 3 (April 2010): 7–41.

Hallock, Steve.  The Press March to War: Newspapers Set the Stage for Military Intervention in Post-World War II America.  New York: Peter Lang, 2012.

Heise, Juergen Arthur.  Minimum Disclosure: How the Pentagon Manipulates the News.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.

Hodgson, Pat.  Early War Photographs.  Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1974.

Hodgson, Pat.  The War Illustrators.  New York: Macmillan, 1977.

Kaplan, Richard L.  “American Journalism Goes to War, 1898-2001: A Manifesto on Media and Empire.”  Media History 9 (December 2003): 209-219.

Kluger, Steve.  Yank, the Army Weekly.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Knight, Oliver.  Following the Indian Wars: The Story of Newspaper Correspondents Among the Indian Campaigners.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960.

Knightly, Phillip.  The First Casualty.  New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1975.

Lande, Nathaniel.  Dispatches From the Front: A History of American War Correspondents.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Lewinski, Jorge.  The Camera at War: A History of War Photography from 1848 to the Present Day.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

Lewis, John E., ed.  The Mammoth Book of War Correspondents.  New York: Carroll and Graf, 2001.

Lovelace, Alexander G. “The New History of War Reporting: A Historiographical Perspective on the Role of the Media and War.” American Journalism 40:1 (2023): 95-106.

Lynch, George and Frederick Palmer.  In Many Wars by Many War Correspondents.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. Updated edition.

Mander, Mary Sue.  “Pen and Sword: A Cultural History of the American War Correspondent.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1979.

Mander, Mary S. Pen and Sword: American War Correspondents, 1898-1975. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Maslowski, Peter. Armed With Camera: The American Military Photographers During World War II. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Matthews, Joseph J.  “The Profession of War Correspondence.”  Journalism Quarterly 33 (Winter 1956): 23-34.

Matthews, Joseph J.  Reporting the Wars.  Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 1957.

Matthews, Lloyd, ed.  Newsmen and National Defense: Is Conflict Inevitable?  Washington DC: Brassey’s, 1991.

McCallum, John.  “U.S. Censorship, Violence, and Moral Judgement in a Wartime Democracy, 1941-1945.” Diplomatic History 41:3 (June 2017): 543-566.

Meyers, Debs, ed.  Yank: The G.I. Story of the War.  New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1947.

Moeller, Susan D.  Shooting War: Photography and the American Experience of Combat.  New York: Basic Books, 1989.

Moorcraft, Paul.  Dying for the Truth: The Concise History of Frontline War Reporting.  Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2017.

Mountcastle, Clay.  “Early Acrimony: The Military and the Press in the Nineteenth Century.”  Army History 96 (Summer 2015): 6-21.

Patton, Robert H.  Hell Before Breakfast: America’s First War Correspondents Making History and Headlines from the Battlefields of the Civil War to the Far Reaches of the Ottoman Empire.  New York: Pantheon Books, 2014.

Paul, Christopher, and James J. Kim.  Reporters on the Battlefield: The Embedded Press System in Historical Context.  Washington DC: RAND Corporation, 2004.

Pedelty, Mark.  War Stories: The Culture of Foreign Correspondents.  New York: Routledge, 1995.

Porch, Douglas.  “No Bad Stories: The American Media-Military Relationship.”  Naval War College Review 55:1 (Winter 2002): 85-107.

Pulwers, Jack Edward.  The Press of Battle: The GI Reporter and the American People.  Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 2003.

Reilly, Thomas W.  “American Reporters and the Mexican War, 1846-1848.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1975.

Reilly, Thomas W.  “The War Press of New Orleans.”  Journalism History 13 (1986): 86-95. (Mexican War)

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O´Connor, eds.  Why We Fought: America’s Wars in Film and History.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2008.

Roth, Michael P.  Historical Dictionary of War Journalism.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Saliba, J. Keith, and Ted Geltner.  “Literary War Journalism: Framing and the Creation of Meaning.” Journal of Magazine Media 13:2 (Summer 2012).

Sullivan, Christopher. “John Steinbeck, War Reporter: Fiction, Journalism and Types of Truth.”  Journalism History 23:1 (Winter 1997): 16-23. 

Swartz, James E.  “The Professionalization of Pentagon Public Affairs: The Evolution of a Role in the United States Government, 1947-1967.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1985.

Sweeney, Michael S.  From the Front: The Story of War Through Correspondents.  Washington DC: National Geographic, 2002.

Sweeney, Michael S.  The Military and the Press: An Uneasy Peace.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2006.

Sweeney, Michael S., and Natascha Toft Roelsgaard.  Journalism and the Russo-Japanese War: The End of the Golden Age of Combat Correspondence.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2022.

Swomley Jr., John M.  Press Agents of the Pentagon.  Washington DC: National Council Against Conscription, 1953.

Takacs, Stacy.  “The US Military as Cold War Programmer.”  Journal of Popular Culture 50:3 (June 2017): 540-560.

Vernon, Alex.  Hemingway’s Second War: Bearing Witness to the Spanish Civil War.  Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011.

Zumwalt, Ken.  The Stars and Stripes: World War II and the Early Years.  Austin: Eakin Press, 1989.

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