Late 19th-Century Journalism

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Adams, Edward E.  “Secret Combinations and Collusive Agreements: The Scripps Newspaper Empire and the Early Roots of Joint Operating Agreements.” Journalism Quarterly 73 (Spring 1996): 195-205.

Agran, Edward G.  Too Good a Town: William Allen White, Community, and the Emerging Rhetoric of Middle America.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.

Allan, Chris.  “Ho for Sitka: Special Correspondents and the Race to Report on the 1867 Transfer of Russian America to the United States.”  Alaska History 32:2 (Fall 2017): 1-26.

Altschuler, Glenn C. Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Ahmad, Diana L.  “The Campaign Against Smoking Opium: Nevada Journalists as Agents of Social Reform, 1875-1882. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 2003 46:4 (2003): 243-256.

American Journalism From the Practical Side.  New York: Holmes Publishing Co., 1897.

Baker, Jean H.  Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in Mid-Nineteenth Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Baldasty, Gerald J., and Jeffrey B. Rutenbeck. “Money, Politics, and Newspapers: The Business Environment of Press Partisanship in the Late 19th Century.” Journalism History 15:2/3 (Summer/Autumn 1988): 60-69.

Baldasty, Gerald J. The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Baldasty, Gerald J.  “The Economics of Working-Class Journalism: The E.W. Scripps Newspaper Chain, 1878-1908.” Journalism History 23:1 (Spring 1999): 3-12. 

Baldasty, Gerald J.  E.W. Scripps and the Business of Newspapers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Banning, Stephen A. “The Professionalization of Journalism: A Nineteenth Century Beginning.” Journalism History 24:4 (Winter 1998): 157-163.

Banning, Stephen A.  “Fully Conscious of Their Power: Nineteenth-Century Michigan Editors Search for Journalistic Professionalism.” American Journalism 36:3 (Summer 2019): 371-394.

Barrineau, Nancy W.  “Journalism in the 1890s: The Origins of Theodore Dreiser’s Fiction.”  PhD dissertation, University of Georgia, 1988.

Barth, Gunther.  City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.  See especially Chapter 3 (Metropolitan Press) and Chapter 4 (Department Store).

Beniger, James. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Bennion, Sherlyn Cox.  Equal to the Occasion: Women Editors of the Nineteenth Century West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1990.

Berens, Charlyne, and Nancy Mitchell. “Parallel Tracks, Same Terminus: The Role of Nineteenth-Century Newspapers and Railroads in the Settlement of Nebraska.” Great Plains Quarterly 29 (Fall 2009): 287–300.

Berger, Meyer.  The Story of the New York Times, 1851-1951.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951.

Bernhardt, Mark. “The Selling of Sex, Sleaze, Scuttlebutt, and other Shocking Sensations: The Evolution of New Journalism in San Francisco, 1887-1900.” American Journalism 28:4 (2011): 111-142.

Blankenship, Avery. “Twain in Circulation: Early Twain and the Culture of Reprinting.” Mark Twain Annual 19 (2021): 68-94.

Blondheim, Menahem. News Over the Wires: The Telegraph and the Flow of Public Information in America, 1844-1897. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Bloom, Robert L.  “Morton McMichael’s North American.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 77:2 (April 1953): 164-

Bogle, Lori Lyn.  “Pandering to the Crowd: The American Governing Elite’s Changing Views on Mass Media and Publicity During the Nineteenth Century.”  Journalism History 43:2 (Summer 2017): 62-74.

Bold, Christine, ed.  The Oxford History of Popular Print Culture, Volume 6: US Popular Print Culture, 1860-1920.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Bradley, Patricia.  “Joseph Pulitzer as an American Hegelian.” American Journalism 10: 3/4 (1993): 70-82.

Brake, Laurel, Bill Bell, and David Finkelstein, eds.  Nineteenth Century Media and the Construction of Identities.  New York: Palgrave, 2000.

Branch, Edgar M., ed.  Clemens of the Call: Mark Twain in San Francisco.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Branch, Michael P. “William Cullen Bryant: The Nature Poet as Environmental Journalist.” American Transcendental Quarterly 12:3 (September 1998): 179-197.

Brooker-Gross, Susan R.  “Nineteenth Century News Definitions and Wire Service Usage.”  Journalism Quarterly 60 (Spring 1983): 25-.

Brown, Charles H.  The Correspondents’ War: Journalists and the Spanish-American War.  New York: Scribner’s, 1967.

Burt, Elizabeth V.  “Shocking Atrocities in Colorado: Newspapers’ Responses to the Ludlow Massacre.” American Journalism 28:3 (Summer 2011): 61-83.

Campbell, W. Joseph. “One of the Fine Figures of American Journalism’: A Closer Look at Josephus Daniels of the Raleigh News and Observer.” American Journalism 16:4 (1999): 37-55. 

Campbell, W. Joseph. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Campbell, W. Joseph.  The Year that Defined American Journalism: 1897 and the Clash of Paradigms.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Caudill, Edward.  “E.L. Godkin and His (Special and Influential) View of 19th Century Journalism.”  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992): 1039-50.

Chiu, Herman B.  “When 1000 Words are Worth a Picture: Now Newspapers Portrayed the Chinese and Irish who Built the First Transcontinental Railroad.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2004.

Chiu, Herman B., and Andrew Taylor Kirk.  “Unlimited American Power: How Four California Newspapers Covered Chinese Labor and the Building of the Transcontinental Railroad, 1865-1869.” American Journalism 31:4 (Fall 2014): 507-524.

Clark, E. Culpepper. “Francis Warrington Dawson: The New South Revisited.” American Journalism 3:1 (1986): 5-23.

Clark, Justin T.  “Confronting the ‘Seeker of Notoriety’: Pathological Lying, the Public, and the Press, 1890-1920.”  American Journalism 34:2 (Spring 2017): 179-200.

Cloud, Barbara.  The Business of Newspapers on the Western Frontier.  Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.

Colbert, Ann. “Philanthropy in the Newsroom: Women’s Editions of Newspapers, 1894-1896.”  Journalism History 22:3 (Summer 1996): 90-99. 

Connery, Thomas.  “Julian Ralph: Forgotten Master of Descriptive Detail.” American Journalism 2:2 (1985): 165-173.

Connery, Thomas B. “Hutchins Hapgood and the Search for a New Form of Literature.” Journalism History 13:1 (Spring 1986): 2-9. 

Connery, Thomas B.  Journalism and Realism: Rendering American Life. Evanston Northwestern University Press, 2011.

Copeland-Campbell, Thomas.  The Ladder of Journalism: How to Climb It.   New York: Allan Foreman, 1889.

Cordell, Ryan, and Abby Mullen.  “Fugitive Verses: The Circulation of Poems in Nineteenth-Century American Newspapers.”  American Periodicals 27:1 (2017): 29-52.

Cosco, Joseph P. “Jacob Riis: Immigrants Old and New, and the Making of Americans.” American Journalism 20:3 (2003): 13-30.

Coultrap-McQuin, Susan.  Doing Literary Business: American Women Writers in the Nineteenth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Coward, John M.  “Making Images on the Indian Frontier: The Adventures of Special Artist Theodore Davis.”  Journalism History 36:3 (Fall 2010): 151-168.

Coward, John M.  “The Princess and the Squaw: The Construction of Native American Women in the Pictorial Press.” American Journalism 31:1 (Winter 2014): 71-99.

Coward, John M.  Indians Illustrated: The Image of Native Americans in the Pictorial Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

Cronin, Mary M., and William E. Huntzicker.  “Popular Chinese Images and the “Coming Man” of 1870,” Journalism History 38:2 (Summer 2012): 86-99.

Cronin, Mary M. “An Almost Undiscovered Country: Frank Leslie’s 1890 Alaska Expedition and the Tradition of Gilded Age Adventure Journalism.” Journalism History 42:1 (Spring 2016): 24-32.

Cummings, Amos Jay. A Remarkable Curiosity: Dispatches from a New York City Journalist?s 1873 Railroad Trip across the American West, ed. Jerald T. Milanich. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2008.

Curtin, Patricia A.  “From Pity to Necessity: How National Events Shaped Coverage of the Plains Indian War.”  American Journalism 12:1 (Winter 1995): 3-21.

Davis, Elmer.  History of the New York Times, 1851-1921.  New York: Times Company, 1921.

Davis, Michael.  “Forced to Tramp: The Perspective of the Labor Press, 1870-1900.” in Walking to Work: Tramps in America, 1790-1935.  Eric H Monkkenen, ed.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Deitz, Charles.  “A Tomb for the Living: An Analysis of Late-19th Century United States Newspaper Reporting on the Insane Asylum.” PhD dissertation, University of Oregon, 2018.

DiGirolamo, Vincent.  “The Black Newsboy: Black Child in a White Myth.”  Columbia Journal of American Studies 4:1 (2000): 63-92.

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel.  Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Digby-Younger, Richard.  The Journalist as Reformer: Henry Demarest Lloyd and Wealth Against Commonwealth. New York: Praeger, 1996.

Dillon, Michael J. “Edward H. Butler’s Buffalo News and the Crisis of Labor, 1877–1892: From Populist to Patrician.” American Journalism 16, no. 1 (1999): 41–58.

Dillon, Michael.  “Satanic Journalism and Its Fate:  The Scripps Chain Strikes Out in Buffalo.”  American Journalism 20 (Spring 2003): 57-82.

Domke, David S.  “The Press, Social Change, and Race Relations in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1996.

Dooley, Patricia L.  Taking Their Place: Journalists and the Making of an Occupation.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Douglas, George H.  The Golden Age of the Newspaper.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Dowling, David. “The Nineteenth-Century Weekly Press and the Tumultuous Career of Journalist Leon Lewis.” Journalism History 39 (Fall 2013): 156–167.

Dryer, Trevor D. “‘All the News That’s Fit to Print’: The New York Times, ‘Yellow’ Journalism, and the Criminal Trial, 1898–1902.”  Nevada Law Journal 8 (Winter 2008): 541–69.

Dworkin, Mark J.  American Mythmaker: Walter Noble Burns and the Legend of Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, and Joaquin Murrieta.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.

Ennis, Ron W.  “Bethlehem Steelworkers, the Press, and the Struggle for the Eight-Hour Day.”  Pennsylvania History 83:3 (Summer 2016): 337-365.

Erickson, John Edward.  “Newspapers and Social Values: Chicago Journalism, 1890-1910.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

Evensen, Bruce J. “Expecting a Blessing of Unusual Magnitude: Moody, Mass Media, and Gilded Age Revival.” Journalism History 24:1 (Winter 1998): 26-36. 

Evensen, Bruce J. “Saucepan Journalism in an Age of Indifference: Moody, Beecher, and Brooklyn’s Gilded Age Press.” Journalism History 27:4 (Winter 2001-2002): 165-177.

Fedler, Fred.  “Mrs. O’Leary’s Cow and Other Newspaper Tales About the Chicago Fire of 1871.” American Journalism3:1 (1986): 24-38.

Ferre, John.  “Sunday Newspapers and the Decline of Protestant Authority in the United States.”  American Journalism 10 (Winter-Spring 1993): 7-22.

File, Patrick C.  “Watchdog Journalists and Shyster Lawyers: Analyzing Legal Reform Discourse in the Journalistic Trade Press, 1895-1899.” American Journalism 35:4 (Fall 2018): 469-489.

File, Patrick C.  “Journalism, Public, Policy: An Institutional View of the Press’s Legal Discourse at the End of the Nineteenth Century.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 96:3 (Autumn 2019): 830-847.

Folkerts, Jean.  “Functions of the Reform Press.” Journalism History 12 (Spring 1985): 22.

Forde, Kathy Roberts, and Katherine A. Foss. “The Facts-the Color!- The Facts’: The Idea of a Report in American Print Culture, 1885-1910.” Book History 15 (2012): 123-151.

Forde, Kathy Roberts, and Sid Bedingfield, eds.  Journalism and Jim Crow: White Supremacy and the Black Struggle for a New America.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2021.  

Franke, Warren T.  “Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1974.

Franke, Warren T.  “An Argument in Defense of Sensationalism: Probing the Popular and Historiographical Concept.” Journalism History 5 (1978): 70-73.

Freedman, Estelle B. “‘Crimes Which Startle and Horrify’: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870–1900.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 20 (September 2011): 465–497.

Frisken, Amanda. “Obscenity, Free Speech, and ‘Sporting News’ in 1870s America.” Journal of American Studies 42 (December 2008): 537–577.

Frisken, Amanda.  Victoria Woodhull’s Sexual Revolution: Political Theater and the Popular Press in Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Frisken, Amanda.  Graphic News: How Sensational Images Transformed Nineteenth-Century Journalism.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2020.

Fuhlhage, Michael J. “Eastern American Correspondents and the Othering of Mexicans in the Nineteenth-Century Popular Press.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, 2010.

Fulhage, Michael.  “Brave Old Spaniards and Indolent Mexicans: J. Ross Browne, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, and the Social Construction of Off-Whiteness in the 1860s.” American Journalism 31:1 (Winter 2014): 100-126.

Gates, Sharon Joyce. “Adolph Ochs: Learning What’s Fit to Print.” American Journalism 8, no. 4 (1991): 228–29.

Gentzkow, Matthew, Edward L. Glaeser, and Claudia Goldin.  “The Rise of the Fourth Estate: How Newspapers Became Informative and Why It Mattered,” in Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America’s Economic History, ed. Edward L. Glaeser and Claudia Goldin, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Gentzkow, Matthew, Jesse M. Shapiro, and Michael Sinkinson.  “The Effect of Newspaper Entry and Exit on Electoral Politics.” American Economic Review 101:7 (December 2011): 2980-3018.

Gentzkow, Matthew, Jesse M. Shapiro, and Michael Sinkinson.  “Competition and Ideological Diversity: Historical Evidence from US Newspapers.”  American Economic Review 104: 10 (October 2014): 3073-3114.     

Gerdts, William H.  “Chicago is Rushing Past Everything:  The Rise of American Art Journalism in the Midwest, from the Development of the Railroad to the Chicago Fire.”  American Art Journal 27: 1/2 (1995-1996): 38-83.

Gleason, Timothy W.  The Watchdog Concept: The Press and the Courts in 19th Century America.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

Godkin, E.L.  “Diplomacy and the Newspaper.” North American Review 160 (May 1895): 570-579.

Gorbach, Julien, and Michael Fuhlhage. “Fallen, Broken Places: American Imperial Journalism and Thomas W. Knox’s Traveller Books for Boys.” Journalism History 47:2 (2021): 189-214.

Gorn, Elliot J.  “The Wicked World: The National Police Gazette and Gilded Age America.”  Media Studies Journal 6:1 (Winter 1992): 1-15.

Gramling, Oliver. AP: The Story of the News.  Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1969.

Gray, Lee E.  “Type and Building Type: Newspaper Office Buildings in Nineteenth Century New York,” in Roberta Moundry, ed., The American Skyscraper: Cultural Histories.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Greene-Blye, Melissa.  “Great Men, Savages, and the End of the Indian Problem.” Journalism History 46:1 (2020): 32-49.

Gregg, Leigh F.  “The First Amendment in the 19th Century: Journalists’ Privilege and Congressional Investigation.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1984.

Guber, Deborah Lynn. ““Make of Them Grand Parks, Owned in Common”: The Role of Newspaper Editorials in Promoting the Adirondack Park, 1864–1894.” Journal of Policy History 22 (no. 4, 2010): 423–449.

Gullason, Thomas Arthur.  “Stephen Crane’s Private War on Yellow Journalism.”  Huntington Library Quarterly 22:3 (May 1959): 201-208.

Hachten, William A.  “The Metropolitan Sunday Newspaper in the United States: A Study of Trends in Content and Practices.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1960

Halttunen, Karen.  Murder Most Foul: The Killer and the American Gothic Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Hansen, Bert.  “New Images of a New Medicine: Visual Evidence for the Widespread Popularity of Therapeutic Discoveries in America after 1885.”  Bulletin of the History of Medicine 73:4 (Winter 1999): 629-678.

Harmon, Mark D.  “The New York Times and the Theft of the Presidential Election of 1876.”  Journal of American Culture 10:2 (Summer 1987): 35-41.

Harrison, James G.  “American Newspaper Journalism as Described in American Novels of the Nineteenth Century.”  Phd dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1945.

Harrison, James.  “Nineteenth Century American Novels on American Journalism.”  Journalism Quarterly 22 (September 1945): 215-224 and (December 1945): 335-345.

Hart, Jack R. “Horatio Alger in the Newsroom: Social Origins of American Editors.” Journalism Quarterly 53 (1976): 14-20.

Harter, Eugene C.  Boilerplating America: The Hidden Newspaper.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991.

Hays, Robert. A Race at Bay: New York Times Editorials on the “Indian Problem, 1860-1900. Carbondale: Souther Illinois University Press, 1997.

Hays, Robert, ed.  Editorializing the ‘Indian Problem’: The New York Times on Native Americans, 1860-1900.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Henry, Susan. “Reporting Deeply and at First Hand: Helen Campbell in the 19th Century Slums.” Journalism History 11:1 (Spring-Summer 1984): 18-25. 

Holbo, Paul S.  Tarnished Expansion: The Alaska Scandal, the Press, and Congress.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983.

Hong, Nathaniel.  “Constructing the Anarchist Beast in American Periodical Literature, 1880-1903.”  Critical Studies in Mass Communication 9 (March 1992): 110-130.

Hopper, Jennifer Rose.  “Reexamining the Nineteenth-Century Presidency and Partisan Press: The Case of President Grant and the Whiskey Ring Scandal.”  Social Science History 42:1 (January 2018): 109-133.

Hutton, Frankie, and Barbara Straus Reed, eds.  Outsiders in 19th Century Press History: Multicultural Perspectives.  Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press, 1995.

Jeffries, Laura.  “It Makes a Fellow Feel Responsible: Anglo-American Imperial Vistas and the ‘White Man’s Burden’ in McClure’s Magazine, 1898-99.” Book History 23 (2020): 169-205.

Johanningsmeier, Charles. “Newspaper Syndicates of the Late Nineteenth Century: Overlooked Forces in the American Literary Marketplace.” Publishing History 37 (1995): 61-82.

Johanningsmeier, Charles.  Fiction and the American Literary Marketplace: The Role of Newspaper Syndicates, 1860-1900.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Johanningsmeier, Charles.  “The 1894 Syndicated Newspaper Appearances of The Red Badge of Courage.”  American Literary Realism 40:3 (Spring 2008): 226-247.

Jones, Robert B. “The Press in the Election: Ending Tennessee’s Reconstruction.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 65 (Winter 2006–2007): 320–341. 

Juergens, George.  Joseph Pulitzer and the New York World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Junger, Richard. Becoming the Second City: Chicago’s Mass News Media, 1833-1898. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Kaplan, Richard. “The Economics of Popular Journalism in the Gilded Age.” Journalism History 21:2 (Summer 1995): 65-78.

Kaplan, Richard L.  Politics and the American Press: The Rise of Objectivity, 1865-1920.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Kaplan, Richard L.  “Press, Paper, and the Public Sphere.” Media History 21: 1 (February 2015): 42-54.

Keller, Morton.  Affairs of State: Public Life in Late 19th Century America.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Khoo, Flora.  “The Ideological Influence of Political Cartoons on the1884 U.S. Presidential Race.” American Journalism 37:3 (Summer 2020): 372-396.

King, Dean.  Guardians of the Valley: John Muir and the Friendship That Saved Yosemite.  New York: Scribner, 2023.  Focus on Robert Underwood Johnson, editor of Century magazine, founding member of the Sierra Club.

Kitch, Carolyn L. “The Courage to Call Things by Their Right Names: Fanny Fern, Feminine Sympathy, and the Feminist Issues in Nineteenth-Century American Journalism.” American Journalism 13:3 (1996): 286-303. 

Knight, Denise D. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Randolph Hearst, and the Practice of Ethical Journalism.” American Journalism 11, no. 4 (1994): 336–47.

Kobre, Sidney.  The Yellow Press and Gilded Age Journalism.  Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1964.

Knight, Oliver.  Following the Indian Wars: The Story of Newspaper Correspondents Among the Indian Campaigners.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960.

Knights, Peter R.  “The Press Association War of 1866-67.” Journalism Monographs No. 6 (December 1967).

Knights, Peter R.  “‘Competition’ in the U.S. Daily Newspaper Industry, 1865-68,” Journalism Quarterly 45:3 (Autumn, 1968): 473-480.

Kunzle, David.  The History of the Comic Strip: The Nineteenth Century.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Lanosga, Gerry.  “Behold the Wicked Abominations That They Do: The Nineteenth-Century Roots of the Evidentiary Approach in American Investigative Journalism.” American Journalism 49:4 (Fall 2022): 368-391.

Lawson, Linda. “Advertisements Masquerading as News in Turn-of-the-Century American Periodicals.” American Journalism 5:2 (1988): 81-96.

Lewis, Charles.  “Wise Decisions: A Frontier Newspaper’s Coverage of the Dakota Conflict.”  American Journalism 28:2 (Spring 2011): 48-80.   (Mankato Record)

Lloyd, John P. “Labor’s Rebellion: Albert Parsons, Joseph Medill, and the Legacy of the Civil War in the Strike of 1877 in Chicago.” Journal of Illinois History 10 (Autumn 2007): 166–90.

Lutes, Jean M.  “Into the Madhouse with Nellie Bly: Girl Stunt Reporting in Late Nineteenth Century America.”  American Quarterly 54 (June 2002): 217-253.

Luxon, Norval N.  Niles’ Weekly Register: News Magazine of the Nineteenth Century.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947.

McCluskey, Audrey T.  “Representing Race: Mary McLeod Bethune and the Press in the Jim Crow Era.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 23 (Winter 1999): 236-245.

McKivigan, John.  Forgotten Firebrand: James Redpath and the Making of Nineteenth Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

McLaren, John F.  “Sensational Spiritualism: The Study of 19th Century Reporting and its Effect on the Spiritualist Movement.” PhD dissertation, Southern New Hampshire University, 2023.

McMahon, Clan T.  “Caricaturing Race and Nation in the Irish-American Press, 1870-1880: A Transnational Perspective.”  Journal of American Ethnic History 33:2 (Winter 2014): 33-56.

McNenly, Linda Scarangella. “Foe, Friend, or Critic: Native Performers with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show and Discourses of Conquest and Friendship in Newspaper Reports.” American Indian Quarterly 38 (Spring 2014): 143–176.

McWilliams, James.  Mark Twain in the St. Louis Post Dispatch, 1874-1891.  Albany: Winston Publishing Co., 1997.

Makemson, Harlen. “A Dude and Pharisee: Cartoon Attacks on Harper’s Weekly Editor George William Curtis and the Mugwumps in the Presidential Campaign of 1884.” Journalism History 29:4 (Winter 2004): 179-189.

Mann, Russell A.  “Investigative Journalism in the Gilded Age: A Study of the Detective Journalism of Melville E. Stone and the Chicago Morning News, 1881-1888.”  Phd dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1977.

Margolies, Daniel S.  Henry Watterson and the New South: The Politics of Empire, Free Trade, and Globalization.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006.

Marren, Joe. “Activism and Indifference: Stephen Crane and the Reportage of His Career.” Journalism History 42:1 (2016): 43-50.

Mayer, Gordon. “Party Rags? Politics and the News Business in Chicago’s Party Press, 1831-71.” Journalism History32:3 (Fall 2006): 138-146.

Menke, Richard. “Media in America, 1881: Garfield, Guiteau, Bell, Whitman,” Critical Inquiry 31 (Spring 2005): 638­66.

Mindich, David.  Just the Facts: How Objectivity Came to Define American Journalism. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Montalbano, Kathryn. “Preventing Yellow Jack and Yellow Journalism: Tensions in Mississippi Valley News Coverage of the 1873 Yellow Fever Epidemic.” Journalism History 47:4 (2021): 372-391.

Mueller, James E.  Shooting Arrows and Slinging Mud: Custer, the Press, and the Little Bighorn.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Mueller, James E. “Stanley Before Livingstone: Henry Morton Stanley’s Coverage of Hancock’s War Against the Plains Tribes in 1867.” Journalism History 42:1 (2016): 5-14.  

Musser, Charles.  Politicking and Emergent Media: US Presidential Elections of the 1890s.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016.

Nalbach, Alex.  “Poisoned at the Source? Telegraphic News Services and Big Business in the Nineteenth Century.”  Business History Review 77:4 (Winter 2003): 577-610.

Nall, Joshua.  News from Mars: Mass Media and the Forging of a New Astronomy, 1860-1910.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019.

Nasaw, David.  The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Boston: Mariner Books, 2000.

Natale, Simone.  Supernatural Entertainments: Victorian Spiritualism and the Rise of Modern Media Culture.  Philadelphia: Penn State University Press, 2016.

Nevin, Allan.  The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism.  New York: Boni & Liveright, 1921.

Nord, David Paul. “The Politics of Agenda Setting in Late 19th Century Cities.” Journalism Quarterly 58:4 (1981): 565-574, 612.

Nord, David Paul.  “The Business Values of American Newspapers: The 19th Century Watershed in Chicago.” Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 265-73.

Nord, David Paul. Communities of Journalism: A History of American Newspapers and Their Readers.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

North, Simon N.D.  History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States.  Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1884.

Olsson, Jan.  “Pressing Matters: Media Crusades Before the Nickelodeons.”  Film History 27:2 (2015): 105-139.

Osthaus, Carl R.  Partisans of the Southern Press: Editorial Spokesmen of the Nineteenth Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

O’Brien, Frank M.  The Story of the Sun, New York: 1833-1928.  New York: Appleton, 1928.

Olasky, Marvin N.  “Opposing Abortion Clinics: A New York Times 1871 Crusade.”  Journalism Quarterly 63:2 (Summer 1986): 305-310.

Pears, Emily.  “Visible States and Invisible Nation: Newspaper Coverage of Nineteenth-Century Lawmaking.”  Journal of Policy History 31:3 (2019): 354-381.

Petrova, Maria. “Newspapers and Parties: How Advertising Revenues Created an Independent Press.” American Political Science Review 105 (November 2011): 790–808.

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Tunnell, Ted. “Creating the Propaganda of History: Southern Editors and the Creation of the Carpetbagger and Scalawag.” Journal of Southern History 72:4 (2006): 789-822.

Turner, Hy B.  When Giants Ruled: The Story of Park Row, New York’s Great Newspaper Street.  New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.

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Wallace, Aurora.  “A Height Deemed Appalling: Nineteenth-Century New York Newspaper Buildings.  Journalism History 31:4 (Winter 2006): 178-189.

Wallach, Glenn. “A Depraved Taste for Publicity: The Press and Private Life in the Gilded Age.” American Studies 39:1 (Spring 1998): 31-57.

Watson, Elmo Scott. “The Indian Wars and the Press, 1866-1867.” Journalism Quarterly 17 (1940): 301-312.

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Wharton-Michael, Patty. “The Johnstown Flood of 1889: The Johnstown Tribune’s Commonsense Coverage vs. Common-Practice Sensationalism.” Journalism History 38:1 (2012): 23-33.

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Wilson, John P., “Building His Own Legend: Billy the Kid and the Media,” New Mexico Historical Review, 82 (Spring 2007), 221–35.

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