Labor/Radical/LGBTQ+/Underground Journalism

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Labor, Socialist, Anarchist Press

Aaron, Daniel. Writers on the Left: Episodes in American Literary Communism.  New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961.

Beck, Elmer A.  “Autopsy of a Labor Daily: The Milwaukee Leader.”  Journalism Monographs 16 (August 1970).

Bekken, Jon E.  “No Weapon So Powerful: Working Class Newspapers in the United States.”  Journal of Communication Inquiry 12:2 (Summer 1988).

Bekken, Jon. “‘The Most Vindictive and Most Vengeful Power’: Labor Confronts the Chicago Newspaper Trust.”  Journalism History 18 (1992):11-17.

Bekken, Jon E.  “Working Class Newspapers, Community, and Consciousness in Chicago, 1880-1930.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1992.

Bekken, Jon. “‘This Paper Is Owned by Many Thousands of Workingmen and Women’: Contradictions of a Socialist Daily.” American Journalism 10, no. 1–2 (1993): 61–83.

Bekken, Jon. “A Paper for Those Who Toil: The Chicago Labor Press in Transition.”  Journalism History 23:1 (Winter 1997): 24-33.

Bekken, Jon. “A Collective Biography of Editors of U.S. Workers’ Papers: 1913 & 1925.” American Journalism 15, no. 3 (1998): 19–39.

Blake, Matthew Dower. “Woody Sez: Woody Guthrie in the People’s World Newspaper.”  PhD dissertation, University of Florida, 2006.  

Blake, Matthew.  “Woody Guthrie: A Dust Bowl Representative in the Communist Party Press.”  Journalism History 35:4 (Winter 2010): 184-193.

Briley, Ronald.  “‘Woody Sez’: Woody Guthrie, The People’s Daily World, and Indigenous Radicalism.”  California History 84 (Fall 2006): 30–43; 69–70.

Bryant, Earle.  Byline, Richard Wright: Articles from the Daily Worker and New Masses.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2014.

Buchstein, Frederick D.  “The Anarchist Press in American Journalism.” Journalism History 1 (1974): 43-45, 66.

Chen, Michelle.  “The Labor Angle: Reflections on the History of the Working-Class and Radical Press.” Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas 19:3 (September 2022): 77-83.

Cobb-Reiley, Linda.  “Aliens and Alien Ideas: The Suppression of Anarchists and the Anarchist Press in America, 1901-1984.”  Journalism History 15 (Summer 1988).

Conlin, Joseph R., ed.  The American Radical Press 1880-1960.  2 vols.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974.*

Corbin, David.  The Socialist and Labor Star, 1912-1915.  Huntington: Appalachian Movement Press, 1951.

Faue, Elizabeth.  Writing the Wrongs: Eva Valesh and the Rise of Labor Journalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Ferguson, Kathy E. “Assemblages of Anarchists: Political Aesthetics in Mother Earth.” The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 4, no. 2 (2013): 171–194. 

Ferguson, Kathy E. Letterpress Revolution: The Politics of Anarchist Print Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2023.

Fetter, Henry D.  “The Party Line and the Color Line: The American Communist Party, the Daily Worker, and Jackie Robinson.”  Journal of Sports History 28 (Fall 2001): 375-402.

Foner, Philip S.  “A Labor Voice for Black Equality: The Boston Daily Evening Voice, 1864-1867.” Science and Society (Fall 1978): 304-325.

Foner, Philip S.  William Heighton: Pioneer Labor Leader of Jacksonian Philadelphia.  New York: International, 1991.  (editor of Mechanics’ Free Press)

Frieve, Victoria M.  “Advocacy Journalism, Labor Feminism, and the Timber Worker, 1936-1940.” Journalism History48:1 (January 2022): 19-40.

Gavigan, Ian Noah.  “Read All Over: The Reading Labor Advocate and Socialist Power in Pennsylvania, 1927-1936.”  Pennsylvania History 88:1 (Winter 2021): 56-84.

Giombolini, Alecia Jay.  “Anarchism on the Willamette: The Firebrand Newspaper and the Origins of a Culturally American Anarchist Movement, 1895-1898.” PhD dissertation, Portland State University, 2018.

Goldwater, Walter, ed.  Radical Periodicals in America, 1890-1950.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966.

Gower, Karla K. “Agnes Smedley: A Radical Journalist in Search of a Cause.” American Journalism 13, no. 4 (1996): 416–39.

Graham, John, ed., “Yours for the Revolution:” The Appeal to Reason, 1895-1922. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Greenwood, Laura. “The Anarchist Periodical Press in the United States: An Intertextual Study of Prison BlossomsFree Society, and The Demonstrator.” PhD dissertation, Trent University, 2016.

Halverson, Guy, and William E. Ames.  “The Butte Bulletin: Beginnings of a Labor Daily.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Summer 1969): 260-266.

Hoerder, Dick, ed.  The Immigrant Labor Press in North America, 1840s-1970s.  3 Volumes.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Hume, Janice.  “Lincoln was a Red and Washington a Bolshevik:  Public Memory as Persuader in the Appeal to Reason.”  Journalism History 28:4 (Winter 2003): 172-181.

Jones, Margaret C.  Heretics & Hellraisers: Women Contributors to The Masses, 1911-1917.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.

Kates, James.  “Editor, Publisher, Citizen, Socialist: Victor L. Berger and His Milwaukee Leader.”  Journalism History 44:2 (Summer 2018): 79-88.

Lee, R. Alton.  Publisher For the Masses, Emanuel Haldeman-Julius.  Lincoln: Bison Books, 2018.

Leopold, Richard.  Robert Dale Owen, a Biography.  New York: Octagon Books, 1969.  (editor of New York Free Enquirer)

Lumsen, Linda J.  Black, White, and Red All Over: A Cultural History of the Radical Press in its Heyday, 1900-1917.  Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2014.

Lumsen, Linda J. “The New York Call: Challenges to Sustaining Socialist Identity in the Daily Newspaper Market, 1908-1923.” Journalism History 39:4 (2014): 219-230.

McFarland, C.K., and Robert L. Thistlewaite.  “20 Years of a Successful Labor Paper: The Working Man’s Advocate, 1829-1849.”  Journalism Quarterly 60:1 (Spring 1983): 35-40.

McFarland, C.K., and Robert L. Thistlewaite.  “Labor Press Demands Equal Education in Age of Jackson.”  Journalism Quarterly 65 (1988): 600-08.

Martinek, Jason D. “‘Mental dynamite’: Radical Literacy and American Socialists’ Print Culture of Dissent, 1897–1917.”  PhD dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University, 2005.

Meeker, Martin. Contacts Desired: Gay and Lesbian Communications and Communities, 1940s-1970s.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Miller, Sally M.  Victor Berger and the Promise of Constructive Socialism, 1910-1920.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973.

Nord, David Paul.  “The Appeal to Reason and American Socialism, 1901-1920.”  Kansas History 1 (Summer 1975).

O’Neil, William L.  Echoes of Revolt: The Masses, 1911-1917.  Chicago, 1966.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J., and Jared Schroeder. Emma Goldman’s No-Conscription League and the First Amendment. New York: Routledge, 2019.

Roediger, David.  “Racism, Reconstruction, and the Labor Press: The Rise and Fall of the St. Louis Daily Press, 1864-1866.”  Science and Society (Summer 1978): 156-164.

Rondinone, Troy. The Great Industrial War: Framing Class Conflict in the Media, 1865-1950.  Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Roscigno, Vincent J.  The Voice of Southern Labor: Radio, Music, and Textile Strikes, 1929-1934.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

Rozendal, Michael. “An Engaged Mass Audience? The Provocations of a Popular Front Slick, Direction (1937–1945).” The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 3, no. 2 (2012): 198–213. 

Ruff, Allen. We Called Each Other Comrade: Charles H. Kerr & Company, Radical Publisher.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Russo, Ann, and Cheris Kramarae.  The Radical Women’s Press of the 1850s.  New York: Routledge, 1991.

Schappes, Morris U.  The Daily Worker: Heir to a Great Tradition.  New York: Daily Worker, 1944.

Schreiber, Rachel.  Gender and Activism in a Little Magazine: The Modern Figures of the Masses. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

Serby, Benjamin. “Not to Produce Newspapers, But Committed Radicals: The Underground Press, the New Left, and the Gay Liberation Counter public in the United States, 1965-1976.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 32: 1 (January 2023): 1-26.

Shore, Elliot, et al., eds., The German-American Radical Press: The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.*

Spencer, David R. “Unequal Partners: Gender Relationships in Victorian Radical Journalism.”  American Journalism 14:3-4 (1997): 441-59.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Origins of the American Labor Press.” Journalism History 25:3 (Summer 1999): 99-106.

Theoharis, Athan.  “The FBI, the Roosevelt Administration, and the ‘Subversive’ Press.”  Journalism History 19:1 (Winter 1993):3-10.

Tracy, James F. “From Blueprint to Reality: The Dubuque Leader’s Transformation Under Cooperative Ownership.” American Journalism 19:4 (2002): 95-119. 

Tracy, James F.  “A Historical Case Study of Alternative News Media and Labor Activism: The Dubuque Leader, 1935-1939.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 8:4 (Winter 2007). 

Wald, Alan M.  Trinity of Passion: The Literary Left and the Antifascist Crusade.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007. 

Yaudes, Cynthia Gwynne. “Working an Image: Radical Labor Newspapers and the American Tabloid Press, 1919–1922.”  PhD dissertation, Indiana University, 2008.

Alternative and “Underground” Press/ LGBTQ+ Media

Armstrong, David.  A Trumpet To Arms: Alternative Media in America. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1981.

Bizot, Jean-Francois.  Free Press: Underground & Alternative Publications, 1965-1975.  New York: Universe, 2006.

Ellis, Donna Lloyd.  “The Underground Press in America.”  Journal of Popular Culture 5:1 (Summer 1971): 102-124.

Francois-Bizot, Jean.  Free Press: Underground and Alternative Publications, 1965-1975.  New York: Universe Publishing, 2006.

Gallo, Marcia M.  Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006.

Goldstein, Richard.  Reporting the Counterculture.  Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.  (Village Voice writer)

Gordon, Douglas E.  “The Great Speckled Bird: Harassment of an Underground Newspaper.”  Journalism Quarterly 56 (Summer 1979): 289-295.

Glessing, Robert J. The Underground Press in America. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1970.

Hume, Janice.  “The Past as Persuader in The Great Speckled Bird.” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 182-190.

Kaplan, Geoff.  Power to the People: The Graphic Design of the Radical Press and the Rise of the Counterculture, 1964-1974.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Katzman, Allen, ed.  Our Time: An Anthology of Interviews from the East Village Other.  New York: Dial Press, 1972.

Kessler, Lauren. “Sixties Survivors: The Persistence of Countercultural Values in the Lives of Underground Journalists.” Journalism History 16:1/2 (Spring/Summer 1989): 2-11.

Kline, Wendy.  “Communicating a New Consciousness: Countercultural Print and the Home Birth Movement in the 1970s.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 89:3 (Fall 2015): 527-556.

Kramer, David Jacob.  Heads Together: Weed and the Underground Press Syndicate, 1965-1973. Zurich: Edition Patrick Frey, 2023.

Leamer, Laurence.  The Paper Revolutionaries: The Rise of the Underground Press. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Lewes, J.  “The Underground Press in America (1964-1968): Outlining an Alternative, The Envisioning of an Underground.”  Journal of Communication Inquiry 24:2 (October 2000): 379-400.

Lewes, James Glyn. “Protest and Survive: An Analysis of the Influence and Effect of GI-Produced Underground Newspapers on the United States Armed Forces During the Vietnam War.” PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 2000.

McMillian, John. Smoking Typewriters: The Sixties Underground Press and the Rise of Alternative Media in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Martinek, Jason D.  Socialism and Print Culture in America, 1897-1920.  New York: Routledge, 2013.

Mount, Andre.  “Grasp the Weapon of Culture: Radical Avant-Gardes and the Los Angeles Free Press.” Journal of Musicology32: 1 (Winter 2015): 115-152.

Nette, Andrew, and Iain McIntyre, eds.  Sticking it To the Man: Revolution and Counterculture in Pulp and Popular Fiction. Oakland: PM Press, 2019.

Peck, Abe. Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of the Underground Press.  New York: Pantheon, 1985. 

Perrotta, Katherine.  “Ruffled Feathers: The Great Speckled Bird as a Record of Student and Youth Activism in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southeast, 1968-1976.” American Educational History Journal 45:1 (2018): 39-54.

Rips, Geoffrey.  Un-American Activities: The Campaign Against the Underground Press. San Francisco: PEN American Center, 1981.

Romano, Tricia.  The Freaks Came Out to Write: The Definitive History of the Village Voice, the Radical Paper That Changed American Culture.  New York: Public Affairs Press, 2024.

Satterwhite, Christopher.  “The Gulf Coast Fish Cheer: Radicalism and the Underground Press in Pensacola, Florida, 1970-1971.”  Florida Historical Quarterly 95:1 (Summer 2016): 71-107.

Smith, Gaye S.  “The Underground Press in Los Angeles.”  MA thesis, University of California-Los Angeles, 1968. 

Slonecker, Blake.  A New Dawn for the New Left: Liberation News Service, Montague Farm, and the Long Sixties.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Stewart, Sean.  On the Ground: An Illustrated Anecdotal History of the Sixties Underground Press in the U.S. Oakland: PM Press, 2012.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “The Advocate: Setting the Standard for the Gay Liberation Press.” Journalism History 19:3 (Autumn 1993): 93-102.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  Unspeakable: The Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Underground Press.  Boston: Faber & Faber, 1995.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  “Creating a Venue for the Love That Dare Not Speak Its Name: The Origins of the Gay and Lesbian Press.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72:2 (1995): 436-447.

Trigs, Teal.  “Scissors and Glue: Punk Fanzines and the Creation of a DIY Aesthetic.” Journal of Design History 19:1 (Spring 2006): 69-83.

Wachsberger, Ken, ed.  Voices from the Underground: Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press, Part I.  reprint edition.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2011.

Wachsberger, Ken, ed.  Voices from the Underground: Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press, Part II.  reprint edition.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2012.

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