Journalism of the Civil War and Reconstruction

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Abbott, Richard H.  “The Civil War Origins of the Southern Republican Press.”  Civil War History 43 (1997).

Abbott, Richard H.  “Republican Newspapers and Freedom of the Press in the Reconstruction South, 1865-1877.” in The Press and the Civil War, David B. Sachsman, et al, eds.  New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000.

Abbott, Richard H.  For Free Press and Equal Rights: Republican Newspapers in the Reconstruction South. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004.

Alford, Kenneth L. “Utah and Civil War Press.” Utah Historical Quarterly 80 (Winter 2012): 75–92.

Anderson, John Nathan.  “Money or Nothing: Confederate Postal System Collapse during the Civil War.”  American Journalism 30:1 (Winter 2013): 65-86.

Andrews, J. Cutler. The North Reports the Civil War. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1955.  

Andrews, J. Cutler.  “The Confederate Press and Public Morale.”  Journal of Southern History 32:4 (November 1966): 445-465.

Andrews, J. Cutler. The South Reports the Civil War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Baker, Thomas H.  “Refugee Paper: The Memphis Daily Appeal, 1862-1865.”  Journal of Southern History 29:3 (August 1963): 326-344.

Banning, Stephen.  “Determined to Suppress Everything Like Free Speech: Lincoln’s Private Letters Reveal Aggressive Use of Newspaper Censorship.” Journalism History 46:2 (June 2020): 106-123.

Barker, Brett Ralph.  “Not of Arms, but of Argument: The Battle for the Northern Home Front.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 2001.

Bates, David B.  Lincoln in the Telegraph Office.  New York: Appleton-Century, 1939.

Beales, Benjamin B.  “The San Jose Mercury and the Civil War.”  California Historical Society Quarterly 22 (September 1943): 223-234.

Beckett, Ian F. W.  The War Correspondents: The American Civil War.  Dover, NH: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1993.

Benton, Joel, ed.  Greeley on Lincoln.  New York: Baker and Taylor, 1893.

Berkey, James.  “Latest News from Secessia: Soldier-Printers and the Rebel Grapevine Line.” American Periodicals 30:1 (2020): 26-42.

Bernath, Michael T. “‘Independent in Everything—Neutral in Nothing’: Joseph Addison Turner, The Countryman, and the Cultivation of Confederate Nationalism.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 96 (Spring 2012): 24–55.

Binnington, Ian. “Standing upon a Volcano: Cincinnati’s Newspapers Debate Emancipation, 1860–1862.” American Nineteenth Century History 10 (June 2009): 163–186.

Bird, Stephen V. “Heralding Economic and Political Independence: Danville, Virginia’s Newspaper Editors Adopt James Gordon Bennett’s Penny Press Model During the Civil War.” American Journalism 20:4 (2003): 55-82.

Blackett, R.J.M.  Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Blackman, Robert E.  “Noah Brooks: Reporter in the White House.”  Journalism Quarterly 32 (Summer 1955), 301-310, 374.

Blondheim, Menahem.  “Public Sentiment is Everything:’  The Union’s Public Communication Strategy and the Bogus Proclamation of 1864.”  Journal of American History 89:3 (December 2002): 869-899.

Boggs, Colleen Glenney.  “Public Reading and the Civil War Draft Lottery.”  American Periodicals 26:2 (2016): 149-166.

Bonner, Robert E.  The Soldier’s Pen: Firsthand Impressions of the Civil War.  New York: Hill and Wang, 2006.

Borchard, Gregory.  “The New York Tribune at Harper’s Ferry: Horace Greeley on Trial.”  American Journalism 20 (Winter 2003): 13-31.

Borchard, Gregory A.  Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011.

Bracken, Donagh.  The Words of War: The Civil War Battle Reportage of the New York Times and Charleston Mercury…and What Historians Say Really Happened.  Palisades, NY: History Publishing Co., 2007.

Brantley, Rabun Lee.  Georgia Journalism of the Civil War Period.  Nashville: Peabody, 1929. 

Brettle, Adrian.  “Free Speech in the Civil War.” Journal of Policy History 35:4 (2023): 475-504.

Brooks, Noah.  Washington DC in Lincoln’s Time: A Memoir of the Civil War Era by the Newspaperman Who Knew Lincoln Best.  New York: The Century Co., 1895.

Browne, Junius H.  Four Years in Secessia.  Hartford: O.D. Case, 1865. (NY Tribune)

Bulla, David Williams. “Milo Hascall and the Suppression of Democratic Newspapers in Civil War Indiana.” PhD dissertation, University of Florida, 2004. 

Bulla, David W.  Lincoln’s Censor: Milo Hascall and Freedom of the Press in Civil War Indiana. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2009.

Bulla, David.  “Abraham Lincoln and Press Suppression Reconsidered.”  American Journalism: 26:4 (Fall 2009): 11-33.

Bulla, David W., and Gregory A. Borochard.  Journalism in the Civil War Era.  New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

Bunker, Gary L.  From Rail-Splitter to Icon: Lincoln’s Image in Illustrated Periodicals, 1860-1865.  Kent: Kent State University Press, 2001.

Burlingame, Michael.  Lincoln Observed: The Civil War Dispatch of Noah Brooks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Burlingame, Michael, ed.  Dispatches From Lincoln’s White House: The Anonymous Civil War Journalism of Presidential Secretary William O. Stoddard.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

Burlingame, Michael, ed.  Sixteenth President-in-Waiting: Abraham Lincoln and the Springfield Dispatches of Henry Villard, 1860-1861.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2018.

Bussel, Alan.  “The Atlanta Daily Intelligencer Covers Sherman’s March.”  Journalism Quarterly (August 1974): 405-410.

Cadawaller, Sylvanus.  Three Years With Grant.  Benjamin P. Thomas, ed.  New York: Knopf, 1955.  (Chicago Times reporter)

Carriere, Marius.  “An Irresponsible Press: Memphis Newspapers and the 1866 Riot.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 60 (Spring 2001): 2-15.

Carter, Hodding.  Their Words Were Bullets: The Southern Press in War, Reconstruction, and Peace.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1970.

Carwardine, Richard.  “Abraham Lincoln and the Fourth Estate: The White House and the Press During the American Civil War.”  American Nineteenth Century History (London) 7 (March 2006): 1–27.

Chiasson, Lloyd. “A Newspaper Analysis of the John Brown Raid.”  American Journalism 2 (1985): 22-36. 

Chandler, Robert J.  “Fighting Words: Censoring Civil War Journalism in California.”  California Territorial Quarterly 51 (Fall 2002): 4-17.

Chester, Thomas M.  Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front.  R.J.M. Blackett, ed.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Coffin, Charles C.  Four Years of Fighting.  Boston: Tichnor and Fields, 1866.

Coffin, Charles C.  My Days and Nights on the Battlefield.  Boston: Estes and Laurent, 1887.

Cohn, Jan.  “The Civil War in Magazine Fiction of the 1860s.”  Journal of Popular Culture 4:2 (Fall 1970): 355-382.

Colimore, Edward.  Eyewitness Reports: The Inquirer’s Live Coverage of the American Civil War.  Philadelphia: Inquirer, 2004.

Connor, William P.  “Reconstruction Rebels: The New Orleans Tribune in Post-Civil War Louisiana.”  Louisiana History 21 (Spring 1980).

Coopersmith, Andrew S.  Fighting Words: An Illustrated History of Newspaper Accounts of the Civil War.  New York: The New Press, 2004.

Coussons, John Stanford.  “Thirty Years with Calhoun, Rhett, and the Charleston Mercury: A Chapter in South Carolina Politics.” Phd dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1971.

Craig, Berry.  Kentucky’s Rebel Press: Pro-Confederate Media and the Secession Crisis.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2017.

Cronin, Mary.  “Dear Swinton:’ New York Times Correspondents’ Confidential Letters from the Front Lines, 1864-65.”  Journalism History 32:4 (Winter 2007): 213-222.

Cronon, Mary M.  “War is Thundering at Our Very Gates’: Texas Newspapers During the Civil War.”  Journalism History 34:1 (Spring 2008): 23-33.

Cronin, Mary M.  “Fiend, Coward, Monster, or King: Southern Press Views of Abraham Lincoln.”  American Journalism: 26:4 (Fall 2009): 35-61.

Cronin, Mary M.  “Patriotic Ladies and Gallant Heroines: Images of Confederate Women in Southern Newspapers, 1861-65.”  Journalism History 36:3 (Fall 2010): 138-149.

Cronin, Mary.  Daughters of the New Revolutionary War: Representations of Confederate Women and Gun Culture in the Confederate Press, 1861-1864.” American Journalism 28:3 (Fall 2011): 55-80.

Cronin, Mary M. “‘The North Is to Us Like the Grave.’” Journalism History 39 (Summer 2013): 66–81.

Cronin, Mary M. “Free Speech is Sometimes a Dangerous Privilege: Western Editors’ Support for Press Suppression During the US Civil War.” Journalism History 47:3 (2021): 263-284.

Crozier, Emmet.  Yankee Reporters, 1861-65. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Dana, Charles A.  Recollections of the Civil War.  New York: Appleton, 1898.

Daniel, John M.  The Richmond Examiner During the War. reprint edition.  New York: Ayer Co., 1970.   originally published in 1868.

Davis, David Brion.  The Slave Power Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

Davis, Harold E.  Henry Grady’s New South.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990. (Atlanta Constitution)

Davis, Stephen, and Bill Hendrick. The Atlanta Daily Intelligencer Covers the Civil War.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2022.

Davis, William C., ed.  A Fire-Eater Remembers: The Confederate Memoir of Robert Barnwell Rhett.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Dicken- Garcia, Hazel, and Giovanna Dell’ Orto.  Hated Ideas and the American Civil War Press.  Spokane: Marquette Academic, 2007.

Dickerson, Donna Lee.  “From Suspension to Subvention: The Southern Press During Reconstruction, 1863-1870.” American Journalism 8 (Fall 1991): 230-245.

Dickerson, Donna L. “George T. Ruby: Reconstruction Politician/Journalist.” American Journalism 15, no. 1 (1998): 51–68.

Dickerson, Donna Lee.  The Reconstruction Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1865 to 1877.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Diffley, Kathleen.  “Splendid Patriotism: How the Illustrated London News Pictured the Confederacy.”  Comparative American Studies (London) 5 (December 2007): 385–407.

Diffley, Kathleen Elizabeth.  The Fateful Lightning: Civil War Stories and the Magazine Marketplace, 1861-1876.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2021.

Dumond, Dwight L., ed.  Southern Editorials on Secession.  New York: Century, 1931.

DuPont, Nancy McKenzie.  “The Gathering Tempest: The Role of Mississippi Newspapers in the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861.”  Phd dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1997.

Ellen, John Calhoun, Jr. “Political Newspapers in the Piedmont Carolinas in the 1850s.” PhD dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1958.

Ellis, B. G.  The Moving Appeal: Mr. McClanahan, Mrs. Dill, and the Civil War’s Great Newspaper Run.  Macon: Mercer University Press, 2003.

Endres, Fredric R.  “The Northern Press and the Civil War.”  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 1975.

Endres, Kathleen L.  “The Women’s Press in the Civil War: A Portrait of Patriotism, Propaganda, and Prodding.”  Civil War History 30:1 (March 1984): 31-53.

Fahrney, Ralph Ray.  Horace Greeley and the ‘Tribune’ in the Civil War.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.

Fermer, Douglas.  James Gordon Bennett and the New York Herald: A Study of Editorial Opinion in the Civil War Era, 1854-1867.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986.

Floan, Howard R.  “The New York Evening Post and the Antebellum South.” American Quarterly 8 (Fall 1956): 243-53.

Fuhlhage, Michael. “The Most Solemn and Impressive Duty: New York Tribune Reporter Albert Deane Richardson’s Post-Captivity Campaign to Relive Suffering Prisoners During the Civil War.” Journalism History 39:2 (2013): 82-93.

Fulhage, Michael. “To Limit the Spread of Slavery: A Boston Journal Correspondent’s Multiple Roles in the Kansas Free State Movement.” Journalism History 43:3 (Fall 2017): 143-153.

Fuhlhage, Michael.  Yankee Reporters and Southern Secrets: Journalism, Open Source Intelligence, and the Coming of the Civil War.  New York: Peter Lang, 2019.

Fuhlhage, Michael, Jade Metzger-Riftkin, Sarah Walker, and Nicholas Prephan.  “The News Ecosystem During the Birth of the Confederacy: South Carolina Succession in Southern Newspapers.”  American Journalism 37:2 (Spring 2020): 216-243.

Gabrial, Brian.  “A ‘Crisis of Americanism’: Newspaper Coverage of John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry and a Question of Loyalty.” Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 98- 106.

Garvey, Ellen Gruber.  “Anonymity, Authorship, and Recirculation: A Civil War Episode.”  Book History 9 (2006): 159-178.

George Jr., Joseph.  “A Catholic Family Newspaper Views the Lincoln Administration: John Mullaly’s Copperhead Weekly.” Civil War History 24:2 (June 1978): 112-132.

George Jr., Joseph.  “The World Will Little Note?  The Philadelphia Press and the Gettysburg Address.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 114 (July 1990): 385-398.

Giesberg, Judith.  Sex and the Civil War: Soldiers, Pornography, and the Making of Modern Morality.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Goldsmith, Adolph G.  “Reporting the Civil War: Union Army Press Relations.” Journalism Quarterly 33 (1956): 478.

Graber, Samuel J.  Twice-Divided Nation: National Memory, Transatlantic News, and American Literature in the Civil War Era.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2019.

Graham, Thomas S.  “Florida Politics and the Tallahassee Press, 1845-1861.”  Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (1968): 234-242.

Grant, Alfred.  The American Civil War and the British Press.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.

Griffin, Richard E., ed.  Three Years a Soldier: The Diary and Newspaper Correspondence of Private George Perkins, Sixth New York Independent Battery, 1861-1864.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2006.

Grover, Jan Zita.  “The First Living Room War: The Civil War in the Illustrated Press.” Afterimage (February 1984): 8-11.

Guarneri, Carl J.  Lincoln’s Informer: Charles A. Dana and the Inside Story of the Union War.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2019.

Guback, Thomas H.  “General Sherman’s War on the Press.” Journalism Quarterly 36 (Spring 1959): 171.

Harper, Robert S. Lincoln and the Press.  New York: McGraw Hill, 1951.   

Harris, Brayton.  Blue and Grey in Black and White: Newspapers in the Civil War. Washington DC: Brassey’s, 1999.

Harris, John M. “‘Truthful as the Record of Heaven’: The Battle of Antietam and the Birth of Photojournalism.” Southern Cultures 19 (Fall 2013): 79–94.

Hills, Patricia.  “Cultural Racism: Resistance and Accommodation in the Civil War Art of Eastman Johnson and Thomas Nast.” in Seeing High and Low: Representing Social Conflict in American Visual Culture, ed. Patricia Johnston.  Berkeley: University of California Press,   2006.

Holzer, Harold, et al.  The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print.  New York: Scribner’s, 1984.

Holzer, Harold.  Lincoln and the Power of the Press: The War for Public Opinion.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.

Hoole, Wm. Stanley.  Vizetelly Covers the Confederacy.  Tuscaloosa: Confederate Publishing Co., 1957.

Hoole, Wm. Stanley.  Lawley Covers the Confederacy.  Tuscaloosa: Confederate Publishing Co., 1964.

Hooper, Ostman Castle.  The Crisis and the Man: An Episode in Civil War Journalism.  Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1929.

Horner, Harlan Hoyt.  Lincoln and Greeley.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1953.

Huff, P.J., and J.G. Lewin.  Lines of Contention: Political Cartoons of the Civil War.  Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2007.

Hughes, Thomas A. “The Civil War Press: Promoter of Unity or Neutral Reporter?”  American Journalism 6 (1989): 179-199.

Hutter, W.H., and Ray H. Abrams.  “Copperhead Newspapers and the Negro.” Journal of Negro History 20:2 (April 1935): 131-152.

Isaacs, A. Joakim.  “Presidents and the Press in the Reconstruction Era.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1966.

Jeffrey, Julie Roy.  “They Cannot Expect…That a Loyal People Will Tolerate the Utterance of Such Sentiments: The Campaign Against Treasonous Speech During the Civil War.”  Civil War History 65:1 (March 2019): 7-42.

Jensen, Oliver.  “War Correspondent: 1864: The Sketchbooks of James E. Taylor.”  American Heritage (August-September 1980): 48-64.

Johnson, Allison M.  The Scars We Carve: Bodies and Wounds in Civil War Print Culture. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2019.

Kaplan, Michael David.  David Frakes Day, Civil War Hero and Notorious Frontier Newspaperman.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011.

Katz, Harry L., and Vincent Virga. Civil War Sketch Book: Drawings from the Battlefront. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2012.

Kelbaugh, Ross J.  Introduction to Civil War Photography.  Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1991.

Kent, Christopher.  “War Cartooned/Cartoon War: Matt Morgan and the American Civil War in Fun and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.”  Victorian Periodicals Review 36 (Summer 2003): 153-181.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  “The Telegraph, Censorship, and Politics at the Outset of the Civil War.”  Civil War History 40 (June 1994): 95-119.

Kirkwood, Robert.  “Horace Greeley and Reconstruction.”  New York History 40:3 (1959): 270-280.

Klein, Stacy Jean.  “Wielding the Pen: Margaret Preston, Confederate Nationalist Literature, and the Expansion of Woman’s Place in the South.”  Civil War History 49:3 (September 2003): 221-234.

Knox, Thomas Wallace.  Campfire and Cotton field: Southern Adventures in Time of War.  Philadelphia: Jones Brothers, 1865.

Kolchin, Peter.  “The Business Press and Reconstruction, 1865-1868.” Journal of Southern History 33:2 (May 1967): 183-196.

Kreiser, Lawrence A.  Marketing the Blue and Gray: Newspaper Advertising and the American Civil War.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2019.

Kuhn, Martin.  “Drawing Civil War Soldiers: Volunteers and the Draft in Harper’s Weekly and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 1861-64.”  Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 96-105.

Langley, Peter H. “Pessimism-Optimism of the Civil War Military News, June 1863- March 1865.” Journalism Quarterly 49 (1972): 74-78.

Lawson, Melinda.  Patriot Fires: Forging a New American Nationalism in the Civil War North.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2002.

Leslie’s Illustrated Civil War.  reprint edition.  Jackson: University Press of Missouri, 1992.

Lewin, J. G., and P. J. Huff.  Lines of Contention: Political Cartoons of the Civil War. New York: Collins, 2007. 

“Lincoln and the Media.”  Media History Digest 6:2 (Fall-Winter 1986): 2-64.  Special issue

Logue, Cal M., Eugene F. Miller, and Christopher J. Schroll.  “The Press Under Pressure: How Georgia’s Newspapers Responded to Civil War Constraints.” American Journalism 15:1 (Winter 1998): 13-34.

Lorenz, Alfred L.  “With Bowed Head and Brows Abashed’: The Press of New Orleans under General Benjamin Butler.”  Journalism History 36:2 (Summer 2010): 72-82.

Lovelace, Alexander G.  “Meade and the Media: Civil War Journalism and the New History of War Reporting.” Journal of Military History 85 (October 2021): 907-929.

Lowrey, Richard S.  The Photographer and the President: Abraham Lincoln, Alexander Gardner, and the Images that Made a Presidency.  New York: Rizzoli Ex Libris, 2015.

McKerns, Joseph P.  “A Press Insider’s View of Reconstruction Era Journalism in Washington DC, 1865-1877.”  American Journalism 20 (Spring 2003): 33-56.

McNeely, Patricia G., Debra van Tuyll, & Henry H. Schulte, eds.  Knights of the Quill: Confederate Correspondents and their Civil War Reporting.  West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2010.

McPherson, James M., ed.  The Most Fearful Ordeal: Original Coverage of the Civil War by Writers and Reporters of the New York Times.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004.

Maihafer, Harry J. The General and the Journalists: Ulysses S. Grant, Horace Greeley, and Charles Dana. Washington DC: Brassey’s, 1998.

Maihafer, Harry J. War of Words: Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War Press. Washington DC: Brassey’s, 2001.

Malone, Henry T.  “Atlanta Journalism During the Confederacy.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly (Sept. 1953).

Malone, Henry T.  “The Weekly Atlanta Intelligencer as a Secessionist Journal.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 37 (December 1953): 278-286.

Marcellus, Jane.  “Southern Myths and the Nineteenth Amendment: The Participation of Nashville Newspaper Publishers in the Final State’s Ratification.”  Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly 87:2 (Summer 2010): 241-262.

Marszalek, John F.  Sherman’s Other War: The General and the Civil War Press. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1999.

Mathis, Robert N.  “Freedom of the Press in the Confederacy: A Reality.”  Historian (August 1975): 633-648.

Meredith, Roy.  Mr. Lincoln’s Camera Man: Matthew B. Brady.  2nd rev. ed.  New York: Dover, 1974.

Mindich, David.  “Edwin M. Stanton, the Inverted Pyramid, and Information Control.” in The Press and the Civil War, David B. Sachsman, et al, eds.  New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000.

Miner, Craig.  Seeding Civil War: Kansas in the National News, 1854–1858.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Mohamed, A.N. “Attitudes of Northern Papers Toward the Egalitarian Laws of Reconstruction.” Newspaper Research Journal 19:3 (Summer 1998): 47-62.

Moore, Jennifer E.  “The Artist as Reporter: Drawing National Identity During the US Civil War.”  Journalism History 44:1 (Spring 2018): 2-11.

Myers, Cayce. “Southern Traitor or American Hero? The Representation of Robert L. Lee in the Northern Press from 1865-1870.” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 211-221.

Neely, Jr., Mark E.  The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Neely, Mark E., Jr.  “Odious to Honorable Men: The Press and Its Freedom in the Civil War.”  Chapter 4 of The Union Divided: Party Conflict in the Civil War North.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Neely, Mark E., Jr.  The Boundaries of American Political Culture in the Civil War Era.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Neely, Jr., Mark E., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt.  The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987. 

Neely, Jr., Mark E., and Harold Holzer.  The Union Image: Popular Prints of the Civil War North.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. 

Nelsen, Anna K.  “The North, the South, and the Republican Ideology.”  PhD dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1977.

Nelson, Michael C.  “Writing During Wartime: Gender and Literacy in the American Civil War.”  Journal of American Studies 31:1 (April 1997): 43-68.

Osthaus, Carl R.  Partisans of the Southern Press: Editorial Spokesmen of the Nineteenth Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Pack, Andrew Christopher.  “Battle of the Press: The Nullification Crisis in South Carolina, 1828-1833.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2015.

Page, Charles A.  Letters of a War Correspondent.  James R. Gilmore, ed.  Boston: Page, 1899.

Paludan, Philip S.  “The Better Angels of Our Nature: Lincoln, Propaganda, and Public Opinion in the North During the Civil War.” in Stig Forster, ed.  On the Road to Total War.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Park, David.  “Picturing the War: Visual Genres in Civil War News.”  Communication Review 3 (1999): 287-321.

Parkinson, Robert G.  “An Astonishing Account of CIVIL WAR in North Carolina’: Rethinking the Newspaper Response to the Battle of Alamance.”  Journalism History 32:4 (Winter 2007): 223-230.

Peatman, Jared. “‘Lincoln Acted the Clown’: Virginia’s Newspapers and the Gettysburg Address,” in Virginia at War, 1863, ed. William C. Davis and James I. Robertson Jr., 115–31.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009.

Perkins, Howard C., ed.  Northern Editorials on Secession.  2 vols.  New York: Appleton-Century, 1942.

Perry, James M.  A Bohemian Brigade: The Civil War Correspondents.  New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

Phillips, Adrienne Cole.  “The Mississippi Press’s Response to John Brown’s Raid.”  Journal of Mississippi History 48 (1986): 119-134.

Pierce, Katherine Anna. “Networks of Disunion: Politics, Print Culture, and the Coming of the Civil War.”  PhD dissertation, University of Virginia, 2006.

Plum, William Rattle.  The Military Telegraph During the Civil War in the United States.  2 vols.  New York: Arno, 1974.  reprint edition.

Porter, David.  “The Southern Press and the Presidential Election of 1860.”  West Virginia History 33:1 (1971): 1-13.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika Jean. “Sowing the Seeds of Disunion: South Carolina’s Partisan Newspapers and the Nullification Crisis, 1828–1833.”  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2010.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J.  “Rhetoric of Fear: South Carolina and the State and National Politics of 1830.”  Journalism History 38: 3 (Fall 2012): 166-177.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J.  “Southern Values and the 1844 Election in South Carolina Newspapers.” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 200-210.

Pribanic-Smith, Erika J., “Debates Over Civil War Soldier Voting in California’s Partisan Press, 1863-1864.” American Journalism 40:4 (Fall 2023): 417-446.

Prior, Granville T.  “A History of the Charleston Mercury, 1822-1852.”  PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1946.

Rable, George. “News from Fredericksburg,” in More than a Contest between Armies: Essays on the Civil War Era, ed. James Marten and A. Kristen Foster, 58–84. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2008.

Randall, James G.  “The Newspaper Problem and Its Bearing upon Military Secrecy During the Civil War.”  American Historical Review 23 (January 1918): 303-323.

Rattner, Lorman A., and Dwight L. Teeter.  Fanatics and Fire-eaters: Newspapers and the Coming of the Civil War.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Ray, Frederic.  Alfred R. Waud: Civil War Artist.  New York: Viking, 1974.

Reilly, Tom.  “Lincoln Douglas Debates of 1858 forced a New Role on the Press.”  Journalism Quarterly 56 (Winter 1979): 734-743.

Reynolds, Donald E.  Editors Make War: Southern Newspapers in the Secession Crisis. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1970.

Richards, Eliza. “U.S. Civil War Print Culture and Popular Imagination,” American Literary History 17 (Summer 2005): 349­59.

Richards, Eliza.  Battle Lines: Poetry and Mass Media in the US Civil War.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Risley, J. Ford.  “Georgia’s Civil War Newspapers: Partisan,  Sanguine, Enterprising.”  PhD dissertation, University of Florida, 1996.

Risley, Ford T.  “Bombastic Yet Insightful: Georgia’s Civil War Soldier Correspondents.” Journalism History 24:3 (Autumn 1998): 104-111.

Risley, Ford. “Peter W. Alexander: Confederate Chronicler & Conscience.” American Journalism 15, no. 1 (1998): 35–50.

Risley, Ford.  “The Confederate Press Association: Cooperative News Reporting of the War.”  Civil War History 47:3 (September 2001): 222-239.

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Smart, James G., ed.  A Radical View: The “Agate” Dispatches of Whitelaw Reid, 1861-1865.  2 vols.  Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1976.

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Starr, Louis M.  Bohemian Brigade: Civil War Newsmen in Action, paperback reprint edition.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. Originally published in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Stone, Geoffrey R.  “Abraham Lincoln’s First Amendment.”  New York University Law Review 78 (April 2003): 1-29.

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Tenny, Craig C.  “To Suppress or Not to Suppress: Abraham Lincoln and the Chicago Times.” Civil War History 27:3 (September 1981): 248-259.

Tholl, Perry Thomas.  “The Typographical Fraternity of the First Minnesota Volunteers.” Minnesota History 62:7 (Fall 2011): 258-267.   

Towne, Stephen E.  “Works of Indiscretion:  Violence Against the Democratic Press During the Civil War.”  Journalism History 31:3 (Fall 2005): 138-149.

Townsend, George Alfred.  Rustics in Rebellion: A Yankee Reporter on the Road to Richmond, 1861-1865.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1950.  (Memoirs of NY Herald Civil War correspondent)

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Trexler, Harrison A. “The Davis Administration and the Richmond Press, 1861-1865.” Journal of Southern History 16:2 (May 1950): 177-195.

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Tunnell, Ted. “Creating ‘the Propaganda of History’: Southern Editors and the Origins of Carpetbagger and Scalawag.”  Journal of Southern History 72 (Nov. 2006): 789–822.

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Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin. “The Rebels Yell: Conscription and Freedom of Expression in the Civil War South.” American Journalism 17, no. 2 (2000): 15–29.

Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin.  “Essential Labor: Confederate Printers at Home and at War.”  Journalism History 31:2 (Summer 2005): 75-87.

Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin.  The Southern Press in the Civil War.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin.  “Necessity and the Invention of a Newspaper: Gov. Zebulon B. Vance’s Conservative, 1864-65.” Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 87-97.

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Walther, Eric H.  The Fire Eaters.  Baton Rogue: Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Webb, Samuel L.  ” A Jacksonian Democrat in Postbellum Alabama: The Ideology and Influence of Journalist Robert McKee, 1869-1896.”  Journal of Southern History 62:2 (May 1996): 239-274.

Weber, Jennifer L.  Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln’s Opponents in the North.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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Weisberger, Bernard.  Reporters for the Union.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1953.

Wheeler, Tom.  Mr. Lincoln’s T-Mails: The Untold Story of How Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War.  New York: Harper Collins, 2006.

Williams, Frank J. “Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties: Then and Now,” in Lincoln Revisited: New Insights from the Lincoln Forum.  ed. John Y. Simon, Harold Holzer, and Dawn Vogel, 252–78. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.   

Wilson, Keith.  “The Beginning of the End’:  An Analysis of British Newspaper Coverage of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.”  Journalism History 34:4 (Winter 2009): 230-239.

Wilson, Quintus C.  “The Confederate Press Association: A Pioneer News Agency.”  Journalism Quarterly 26 (1949): 160-166.

Wolff, Robert S.  “The Stronghold of Liberty: Civil War Editorials of the Windham County Press, 1861-1865.”  Connecticut History 42:2 (2003): 132-158.

Young, John Russell.  Men and Memories.  New York: F.T. Neely, 1901.  (Philadelphia Press reporter)

Zboray, Ronald J., and Mary Saracino Zboray.  “Recovering Disabled Veterans in Civil War Newspapers: Creating Heroic Disability.” Journalism History 45:1 (2019): 3-25.

Zboray, Ronald J., and Mary Saracino Zboray.  “The Sound of an Extra: Representing Civil War Newsboys by Pen and in Print.” American Journalism 36:3 (Summer 2019): 348-370.

Zita Grover, Jan.  “The First Living-Room War: The Civil War in the Illustrated Press,” Afterimage (February 1984): 8-11.

Zombek, Angela.  “The Power of the Press: Defining Disloyalty at Old Capitol Prison.” Journal of the Civil War Era 10:3 (September 2020): 319-343.

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