Gender and Consumer Culture

Advertising Index Page

Adkins Covert, Tawnya J. Manipulating Images: World War II Mobilization of Women through Magazine Advertising. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011.

Alexander, Eleanor. “Woman’s Place is in the Tea Room: White Middle-Class American Women as Entrepreneurs and Customers.” Journal of American Culture 32:2 (2009): 126-136.

Altman, Karen E.  “Television as Gendered Technology: Advertising the American Television Set.”  Journal of Popular Film and Television 17:2 (Summer 1989): 46-56.

Banta, Martha.  Imaging American Women.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Barthel, Dianne.  Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Beecher, Mary Anne.  “Building for Mrs. Farmer: Published Farmhouse Designs and the Role of the Rural Female Consumer, 1900-1930.”  Agricultural History 73 (Spring 1999): 252-262.

Behling, Laura L.  “The Woman at the Wheel: Marketing Ideal Womanhood, 1915-1934.”  Journal of American Culture 20:3 (1997): 13-30.

Behling, Laura. L. “Fisher’s Bodies: Automobile Advertisements and the Framing of Modern American Female Identity.” The Centennial Review 41:3 (1997): 515-529. 

Belkaoui, Ahmen, and Janice M. Belkaoui.  “A Comparative Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Print Advertisements: 1958, 1970, 1972.”  Journal of Marketing Research 13:2 (May 1976): 168-172.

Bizri, Zayna N. “Recruiting Women Into the World War II Military: The Office of War Information, Advertising, and Gender.” PhD dissertation, George Mason University, 2017.

Bogardus, Ralph F.  “Tea Wars: Advertising Photography and Ideology in the Ladies’ Home Journal.” Prospects 16 (1991): 299-322.

Breazeale, Kenon.  “In Spite of Women: Esquire Magazine and the Construction of the Male Consumer.”  Signs 20 (Autumn 1994): 1-22.

Brewer, Priscilla K.  From Fireplace to Cookstove: Technology and the Domestic Identity.  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Budgeon, Shelley, and Dawn H. Currie.  “From Feminism to Post-Feminism: Women’s Liberation in Fashion Magazines.” Women’s Studies International Forum 18:2 (1995): 173-186.

Bufalino, Jamie Mayhew. “Reinventing the Body Politic: Women, Consumer Culture, and the Civic Identity from Suffrage to the New Deal.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 2009.

Burt, Elizabeth V.  “From ‘True Woman’ to ‘New Woman’: An Analysis of the Lydia Pinkham ‘Animated Ads’ of 1890.”  Journalism History 37:4 (Winter 2012): 190-206.

Cieply, Stefan Konstantyn, “The Lineaments of Personality: ‘Esquire’ and the Problem of the Male Consumer” (University of Maryland, College Park, 2006).   

Cieply, Stefan K.  “The Uncommon Man: Esquire and the Problem of the North American Male Consumer, 1957–6.3” Gender & History 22 (April 2010): 151–168.

Clair, Blanche, and Dorothy Dignam.  Advertising Careers for Women.  New York: Harper and Brothers, 1939.

Cook, Daniel Thomas.  The Moral Project of Childhood: Motherhood, Material Life, and Early Children’s Consumer Culture.  New York: NYU Press, 2020.

Cook, Sylvia Jenkins. “‘Oh Dear! How the Factory Girls Do Rig Up!’: Lowell’s Self-Fashioning Workingwomen.” New England Quarterly 83 (June 2010): 219–249.

Courtney, Alice E., and Sarah Wernick Lockeretz.  “A Woman’s Place: An Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Magazine Advertisements.”   Journal of Marketing Research 8:1 (February 1971): 92-95.

Cox, Nicole C. “Selling Seduction: Women and Feminine Nature in 1920s Florida Advertising.” Florida Historical Quarterly 89 (Fall 2010): 186–209.

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz.  More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technologies from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Davis, Simone W.  Living Up to the Ads: Genders Fictions of the 1920s.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.

De Grazia, Victoria, and Ellen Furlough, eds., The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Deutsch, Tracey.  Building a Housewife’s Paradise: Gender, Politics, and American Grocery Stores in the Twentieth Century.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Donohue, Kathleen G.  “What Gender is the Consumer? The Role of Gender Connotations in Defining the Political.”  Journal of American Studies 33:1 (April 1999): 19-44.

Epstein, Pamela Ilyse. “Selling Love: The Commercialization of Intimacy in America, 1860s–1900s.”  PhD dissertation, Rutgers University, 2010.

Ewen, Elizabeth.  Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars.  Life and Culture on the Lower East Side, 1890-1925.  New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985.

Finnegan, Margaret.  Selling Suffrage: Consumer Culture and Votes for Women. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Fizer, Natalie, and Glenn Forley. “Advertising Gentility: Ovals and Mass Market Women’s Magazines, 1910–1960,” in Re-creating the American Past: Essays on the Colonial Revival, ed. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring, and Kenny Marotta, 336–50. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006. 

Fox, Bonnie J.  “Selling the Mechanized Household: Seventy Years of Ads in the Ladies’ Home Journal.”  Gender and Society 4 (March 1990): 25-40.

Francois, Samantha Y.  “Girls with Influence: Selling Consumerism to Teenage Girls, 1940-1960.”  PhD dissertation, University of California-Davis, 2003.

Fraterrigo, Elizabeth.  “The Happy Housewife Heroine and the Sexual Sell: Legacies of Betty Friedan’s Critique of the Image of Women.”  Frontiers 36:2 (2015): 33-40.  

Frederick, Christine McGaffey.  Selling Mrs. Consumer.  New York: Bourse, 1929.

Garvey, Ellen Gruber. Adman in the Parlor: Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Gerl, Ellen J., and Craig L. Davis.  “Selling Detroit on Women: Women’s Day and Auto Advertising, 1964-82.”  Journalism History 38:4 (Winter 2013): 209-220.

Ghilani, Jessica.  “Glamour-izing Military Service: Army Recruitment for Women in Vietnam-Era Advertisements.” American Journalism 34:2 (Spring 2017): 201-228.

Gidlow, Liette.   The Big Vote: Gender, Consumer Culture, and the Politics of Exclusion, 1890s- 1920s.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Gidlow, Liette.  “The Deeper Meaning of Tupperware: Consumer Culture and the American Home.” Journal of Women’s History 24:3 (Fall 2012): 195-203.

Gilbert, James.  Men in the Middle: Searching for Masculinity in the 1950s.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Goffman, Erving.  Gender Advertisements.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Goffman, Erving.  “Gender Advertisements.” Studies in Visual Communication 3:2 (Fall 1976.  Special full issue.

Goldstein, Carolyn M.  “Mediating Consumption: Home Economics and American Consumption, 1900-1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Delaware, 1994.

Goldstein, Carolyn M.  “Part of the Package: Home Economists in the Consumer Products Industries, 1920-1940.” in Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession, edited by Sara Stage and Virginia Vincenti.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Gordon, Sarah.  Make it Yourself: Home Sewing, Gender, and Culture, 1890-1930.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

Gottschall, William Peter, Jr.  “Imaging Men, Masculinity, and Fatherhood in Magazine Advertising: Ideological and Hegemonic Constructions of Masculinity and Fatherhood in Magazine Advertising (1960–2000).”  PhD dissertation, Carleton University, Canada, 2008.  

Guadagnolo, Dan. “A Superb Example of the Common Man: J.C. Leyendecker and the Staging of Male Consumer Desire in American Commercial Illustration, 1907-1931.” American Studies 58:4 (2019): 5-32.

Harrington-Lueker, Donna.  “Finding a Market for Suffrage: Advertising and The Revolution, 1868-70.” Journalism History 33:3 (Fall 2007): 130-139.

Henthorn, Cynthia L.  “Commercial Fallout: The Image of Progress, the Culture of War, and the Feminine Consumer, 1939-1959.” Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1997.

Higley, Merle.  Women in Advertising in New York Agencies.  New York: YWCA, 1924.

Hill, Daniel Delis.  Advertising to the American Woman, 1900-1999.  Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2002.

Horowitz, Roger and Arwen Mohun, eds., His and Hers: Gender, Consumption, and Technology. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998.*

Horowitz, Roger, ed.  Boys and Their Toys: Masculinity, Class, and Technology in America.  New York: Routledge, 2001.

Howard, Vicki Jo.  “American Weddings: Gender, Consumption, and the Business of Brides.”  PhD dissertation, University of Texas, 2000.

Howard, Vicki.  “A ‘Real Man’s Ring’: Gender and the Invention of Tradition.”  Journal of Social History 36:4 (Summer 2003): 837-856.

Inness, Sherrie A., ed.  Kitchen Culture in America: Popular Representations of Food, Gender, and Race.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Jacobson, Lisa S.  “Raising Consumers: Children, Childrearing, and the American Mass Market, 1890-1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of California- Los Angeles, 1997.

Jacobson, Lisa. “Manly Boys and Enterprising Dreamers: Business Ideology and the Construction of the Boy Consumer, 1910-1930.” Enterprise and Society 2 (June 2001): 225-258.

Jacobson, Lisa.  “Fashion, Feminism, and the Pleasures and Perils of Consumer Fantasy.”  Journal of Women’s History 22:1 (April 2010): 178-187.

Jobling, Paul.  Man Appeal: Advertising, Modernism and Men’s Wear.  New York: Berg, 2005.

Johnson, David K.  “Physique Pioneers: The Politics of 1960s Gay Consumer Culture.” Journal of Social History 43:4 (Summer 2010): 867-892.

Johnson, David K.  Buying Gay: How Physique Entrepreneurs Sparked a Movement.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

Johnson, Emily. “Who Would Know Better Than the Girls in White? Nurses as Experts in Postwar Magazine Advertising.” Nursing History Review 20 (2012): 46-71.

Johnson, Val Marie. “‘Look for the Moral and Sex Sides of the Problem’: Investigating Jewishness, Desire, and Discipline at Macy’s Department Store, New York City, 1913.” Journal of the History of Sexuality18 (September 2009): 457–485.

Kervin, Denise. “Advertising Masculinity: The Representation of Males in Esquire Advertisements.” Journal of Communication Inquiry 14:1 (1990): 51-70.

Kline, Ronald R.  “Ideology and Social Surveys: Reinterpreting the Effects of ‘Laborsaving’ Technology on American Farm Women.”  Technology and Culture 38:2 (1997): 355-385.

Kreydatus, Elizabeth A.  “Marketing to the ‘Liberated’ Woman: Feminism, Social Change, and Beauty Culture, 1960–2000.”  PhD dissertation, College of William and Mary, 2005.

Leach, William R.  “Transformation in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890-1925.”  Journal of American History 71:2 (September 1984): 319-342.

            This essay explores the emergence of a culture of consumption in American society and its effects on women.  As Leach argues, this new culture had a “transformative effect” on women.  Without attempting to overlook lingering oppression or the manipulative aspects of consumerism, Leach finds that  women during this period increasingly found work outside the home and asserted a new level of independence.  The new consumer culture offered new freedom from self-denial and repression; the department store itself became a place where women could meet outside of the home and interact in a new way.  Moreover, most of the workers in department stores were female, which gave many women the freedom that comes through earning power. Leach discusses efforts made by store managers to attract women customers and make them feel comfortable.  Shopping became for some a form of recreation rather than a tedious chore.  The overall effect, according to the essay, was to allow women a greater opportunity to carve out a public space for themselves, which was one part of the broader movement toward equality.  Scholars who focus too intently on the negative and manipulative aspects of increased consumerism and, Leach acknowledges, tend to overlook positive elements that really did empower women in important ways.  

Leavitt, Sarah A.  From Catherine Beecher to Martha Stewart: A Cultural History of Domestic Advice.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Lemus, Cheryl.  “Save Your Baby, Save Ten Percent.”  Journal of Women’s History 25:3 (Fall 2013): 165-187.

Lerman, Nina E., Ruth Odenziel, and Arwen P. Mohun, eds.  Gender and Technology: A Reader.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Levine, Susan.  “Workers’ Wives: Gender, Class, and Consumerism in the 1920s United States.”  Gender and History 3 (Spring 1991): 45-64.

Lewis, Charles, and John Neville.  “Images of Rosie: A Content Analysis of Women Workers in American Magazine Advertising, 1940-1946.”  Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly 72:1 (1995): 216-227.

Loeb, Lori Anne. Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Lubar, Steven.  “Men/Women/Production/Consumption” in His and Hers: Gender, Consumption, and Technology, Roger Horowitz and Arwen Mohun, eds.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

Lundstrom, William J., and Donald Sciglimpaglia.  “Sex Role Portrayals in Advertising.”  Journal of Marketing 41:3 (July 1977): 72-76.

Lupton, Ellen.  Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Lyth, Peter. “‘Think of Her as Your Mother’: Airline Advertising and the Stewardess in America, 1930–1980.” Journal of Transport History 30 (June 2009): 1–21.

Mandziuk, Roseann M. “‘Ending Women’s Greatest Hygienic Mistake’: Modernity and the Mortification of Menstruation in Kotex Advertising, 1921–1926.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 38 (Fall–Winter 2010): 42-62  

Manko, Katina Lee. “Ding Dong, Avon Calling: Gender, Business, and Door-to-Door Selling, 1890-1955.” PhD dissertation, University of Delaware, 2001.

Marine-Street, Natalie Jean. “Agents Wanted: Sales, Gender, and the Making of Consumer Markets in America, 1830-1930.” PhD dissertation, Stanford University, 2016.

Massoni, Kelley.  “Teena Goes to Market”: Seventeen Magazine and the Early Construction of the Teen Girl as Consumer.” Journal of American Culture 29 (March 2006): 31- 42.

Matthews, Glenna.  Just a Housewife: The Rise and Fall of Domesticity in America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Maxcy, David Joseph.  “Advertising, the Gender System: Changing Configurations of Femininity and Masculinity in Early Advertising in the United States.” PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1994.

Mehaffy, Marilyn Maness. “Advertising Race/Raceing Advertising: The Feminine Consumer(-nation), 1876-1900.” Signs23:1 (Autumn 1997): 131-174.

Miller, Roger.  “Selling Mrs. Consumer: Advertising and the Creation of Suburban Socio-Spatial Relations, 1910-1930.” Antipode 23:3 (1991): 263-306.

Monrreal, Sahar Hayal.  “Woman, Nation, Food: Domesticity and the Imperial Project in Ladies’ Home Journal Food Advertising, 1898–1899.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2008.

Naether, Carl A.  Advertising to Women.  New York: Prentice Hall, 1928.

Neuhaus, Jessamyn.  Housework and Housewives in American Advertising: Married to the Mop.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Neuhaus, Jessamyn.  “A Little Bit of Love You Can Wrap Your Baby In’: Mothers, Fathers, Race, and Representations of Nurturing in 1960s-1970s Pampers Advertising.”  Advertising & Society Review 14:3 (2013).

Nickles, Shelly.  “More is Better: Mass Consumption, Gender, and Class Identity in Postwar America.”  American Quarterly 54 (December 2002): 581-622.

Parkin, Katherine J.  Food is Love: Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Parkin, Katherine.  “Driving Home Class Status: Women and Car Advertising in the United States.”  Advertising & Society Quarterly 20:2 (2019).

Parr, Joy, ed.  “Kitchen Technologies.” Technology and Culture 43 (October 2002).  special issue

Patterson, Martha.  “Survival of the Best Fitted: Selling the New American Woman as Gibson Girl, 1895-1910.”  ATQ: 19th-Century American Literature and Culture 9:1 (March 1995): 73-87.

Peiss, Kathy. Hope in a Jar: The Making of America’s Beauty Culture. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998.

Pendergast, Tom.  Creating the Modern Man: American Magazines and Consumer Culture.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000.

Pollack, Benjamin, and Janice Todd.  “Before Charles Atlas: Earle Liederman, the 1920s King of Mail-Order Muscle.”  Journal of Sport History 44:3 (Fall 2017): 399-420.  

Rabinovitch-Fox, Einav.  “Baby You Can Drive My Car: Advertising Women’s Freedom in 1920s America.  American Journalism 33:4 (Fall 2016): 372-400.

Rabinovitch-Fox, Einav.  Dressed For Freedom: The Fashionable Politics of American Feminism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2021.

Rapp, Rayna, and Ellen Ross.  “The 1920s: Feminism, Consumerism, and Political Backlash in the United States.” in Women in Culture and Politics, J. Freidlander, ed.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Remus, Emily A.  “Tippling Ladies and the Making of Consumer Culture: Gender and Public Space in Fin-de-Siecle Chicago.”  Journal of American History 101:3 (December 2014): 751-777.

Restad, Penne.  “The Third Sex: Historians, Consumer Society, and the Idea of the American Consumer.”  Journal of Social History 47:3 (Spring 2014): 769-786.

Roberts, Mary Louise.  “Gender, Consumption, and Commodity Culture.”  American Historical Review 103:3 (June 1998): 817-844.

Rosenberg, Emily S. “Consuming Women: Images of Americanization in the American Century.” Diplomatic History 23 (Summer 1999): 479-497.

Rosoff, Nancy G.  “Every Muscle is Absolutely Free: Advertising and Advice About Clothing for Athletic American Women, 1880-1920.”  Journal of American Culture 25 (March 2002): 25-31.

Rutherford, Janice Williams.  Selling Mrs. Consumer:  Christine Frederick and the Rise of Household Efficiency.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2003.

Sarch, A.  “Those Dirty Ads! Birth Control Advertising in the 1920s and 1930s.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 14:1 (March 1997): 31-47. 

Scanlon, Jennifer.  Inarticulate Longings: The Ladies’ Home Journal, Gender, and the Promise of Consumer Culture.  New York: Routledge, 1995.

Scanlon, Jennifer, ed., The Gender and Consumer Culture Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Scanlon, Jennifer. “Old Housekeeping, New Housekeeping, or No Housekeeping? The Kitchenless Home Movement and the Women’s Service Magazine.” Journalism History 30:1 (Spring 2004): 2-10.

Scanlon, Jennifer.  “I am What I Make Up: Reading Women’s Roles in Advertising Across a Century.” Advertising & Society Quarterly 21:1 (Spring 2020).

Schweitzer, Marlis.  “The Mad Search for Beauty”: Actresses’ Testimonials, the Cosmetics Industry, and the “Democratization of Beauty.”  Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 4:3 (July 2005): 255-292.

Schweitzer, Marlis Erica. “Becoming Fashionable: Actresses, Fashion, and the Development of American Consumer Culture, 1893–1919.”  PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, Canada, 2005. 

Scharff. Virginia.  Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age.  New York: Free Press, 1991.

Scott, Linda M.  “Warring Images: Women in the Fashion Magazines, 1941-1945.”  Advertising and Society Review 10:2 (2009):

Scranton, Philip, ed., Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America. New York: Routledge, 2001.*

    A collection of essays based on the theme of relationships between beauty and commercial culture.  The overall collection is an examination of how commerce shapes images of gender and race, and dictates fashion and popular culture.  Individual essays examine images of men in business leadership, the afro hairstyle, Chinese-American beauty contests, the cigarette, cosmetics, Maidenform bras, and other manifestations of the “beauty culture.”  See also Kathy Peiss’ introduction to the volume.  These essays are based on papers given at a conference at the Hagley Library.

Shu-Yueh, Lee, and Naeemah Clark.  “The Normalization of Cosmetic Surgery in Women’s Magazines from 1960 to 1989.”  Journal of Magazine and New Media Research 15:1 (Spring 2014): 1-22. 

Sivulka, Juliann.  Ad Women: How They Impact What We Need, Want, and Buy.  Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2009.

Skelly, G. and W. Lundstrom.  “Male Sex Roles in Magazine Advertising, 1959-1979.” Media Studies Journal 31: 4 (1981): 52-57.

Smulyan, Susan.  “Radio Advertising to Women in Twenties America.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 13 (1993): 300-311.

Spigel, Lynn, and Denise Mann, eds.  Private Screenings: Television and the Female Consumer.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Stein, Sally.  “The Graphic Ordering of Desire: Modernization of a Middle Class Women’s Magazine, 1919-1939,” in Richard Bolton, ed., The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories of Photography.  Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989.

Stephens, D. L., Hill, R. P., et al.  “The Beauty Myth and Female Consumers: The Controversial Role of Advertising.” Journal of Consumer Affairs 28:1 (Summer 1994): 137-153. 

Sutton, Denise H. Globalizing Ideal Beauty: How Female Copywriters of the J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency Redefined Beauty for the Twentieth Century. New York: Palgrave, 2009.

Swiencicki, Mark A. “Consuming Brotherhood: Men’s Culture, Style, and Recreation in Consumer Culture, 1880-1930.” Journal of Social History 31:4 (Summer 1998): 773-808.

Synycia, Natasha. “Ida Rosenthal and her ‘Maidenformidible’ Empire: Booming Business and Dreamy Advertising in the Postwar United States.” PhD dissertation, University of California- Irvine, 2016.

Tichner, Lisa.  The Spectacle of Women: Images of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-1914.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Tone, A.  “Contraceptive Consumers: Gender and the Political Economy of Birth Control in the 1930s.” Journal of Social History 29:3 (Spring 1996): 485-506. 

Turbin, Carole.  “Fashioning the American Man: The Arrow Collar Man, 1907-1931.”  Gender and History 14 (November 2002): 470-491.

Twarog, Emily E. LB.  Politics of the Pantry: Housewives, Food, and Consumer Protest in Twentieth-Century America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Vacker, B. and Key, W. R.  “Beauty and the Beholder: The Pursuit of Beauty through Commodities.” Psychology and Marketing 10:6 (November-December 1993): 471-494.

Venkatesan, M., and Jean Losco.  “Women in Magazine Ads: 1959-1971.”  Journal of Advertising Research 15:5 (1975): 49-54.

Wagner, Louis C., and Janis B. Banos. “A Woman’s Place: A Follow-up Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Magazine Advertisements.”  Journal of Marketing Research 10:2 (May 1973): 213-214.

Wajcman, Judy.  Feminism Confronts Technology.  University Park: Penn State University Press, 1991.

Warner, Patricia Campbell. When the Girls Came Out to Play: The Birth of American Sportswear. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2006.

Wayland-Smith, Ellen.  The Angel in the Marketplace: Adwoman Jean Wade Rindlaub and the Selling of America.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2020.

White, Cynthia.  “Feminine Trifles of Vast Importance: Writing Gender into the History of Consumption,” in Gender Conflicts: New Essays on Women’s History, ed. Franca Iacovetta and Mariana Valverde.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

Wills, Jeanie. “Dorothy Dignam’s Advocacy for Women’s Careers in Advertising: 1920-1950.” Journal of Historical Research in Marketing 10:1 (2018): 21-36.

Wolfe, Janet L.  What Makes Women Buy: A Guide to Understanding the New Woman of Today.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

Yang, Mei-ling Yang.  “Selling Patriotism: The Representation of Women in Magazine Advertising in World War II.”   American Journalism 12:3 (1995): 304-20. 

Zuckerman, Mary Ellen.  “From Educated Citizen to Educated Consumer: The Good Citizenship and Pro-Advertising Campaigns in the Womans’ Home Companion, 1920-1938.”  American Periodicals 5 (1995): 86-110.

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