Freedom of Speech and Press

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Constitutional History and Theory

Abrams, Floyd.  Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment.  New York: Viking Penguin Group, 2005.

Anastaplo, George.  Reflections on Freedom of Speech and the First Amendment.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007.

Anderson, Alexis J.  “The Formative Period of First Amendment Theory, 1870-1915.”  American Journal of Legal History 24:1 (January 1980): 56-75.

Anderson, David A.  “The Origins of the Press Clause.”  UCLA Law Review 30 (1983): 455-541.

Applegate, Daniel A.  “Stop the Presses: The Impact of Hosty v. Carter and Pitts v. Pappert on the Editorial Freedom of College Newspapers.”  Case Western Reserve Law Review 56:1 (Fall 2005): 247-283.

Barth, Jonathan.  “Liberty of Conscience is Every Man’s Natural Right: Historical Background of the First Amendment.” Journal of Policy History 35:4 (October 2023): 435-453.

Beasley, Maurine H. “Donna Allen and the Women’s Institute: A Feminist Perspective on the First Amendment.” American Journalism 9, no. 3–4 (1992): 154–66.

Bezanson, Randall P.  How Free Can the Press Be?  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Bezanson, Randall P.  Too Much Free Speech? Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012. 

Bird, Wendell.  Press and Speech Under Assault: The Early Supreme Court Justices, the Sedition Act of 1798, and the Campaign against Dissent.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Blanchard, Margaret A. Exporting the First Amendment: The Press- Government Crusade of 1945-1952. New York: Longman, 1985.

Blanchard, Margaret A. “Beyond Original Intent: Exploring a Broader Meaning of Freedom of Expression.” Journalism History 14:1 (Spring 1987): 2-7.

Blanchard, Margaret A.  Revolutionary Sparks: Freedom of Expression in Modern America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Blanks Hindman, Elizabeth. “First Amendment Theories and Press Responsibility: The Work of Zechariah Chafee, Thomas Emerson, Vincent Blasi and Edwin Baker.” Journalism Quarterly 69:1 (1992): 48-64.

Bollinger, Lee.  Images of a Free Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Brenner, Daniel L., and William L. Rivers.  Free but Regulated: Conflicting Traditions in Media Law.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1982.

Buel, Richard, Jr.  “Freedom of the Press in Revolutionary America: The Evolution of Libertarianism, 1760-1820.” In Bailyn, Bernard, and John Hench, eds. The Press and the American Revolution.  Worcester, MA.: American Antiquarian Society, 1976.

Cate, Irene M. Ten. “Speech, Truth, and Freedom: An Examination of John Stuart Mill’s and Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes’s Free Speech Defenses.” Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 22 (Winter 2010): 35–81.

Chaffee, Zachariah, Jr.  Freedom of Speech.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 1920.

Chafee, Zechariah.  Government and Mass Communications: A Report.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947.

Chamberlain, Bill F., and Charlene J. Brown, eds.  The First Amendment Reconsidered.  New York: Longman, 1982.

Cheney, William L.  Freedom of the Press.  New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1949.

Cobb-Reiley, Linda.  “Not an Empty Box with Beautiful Words on It: The First Amendment in Progressive Era Scholarship.”  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992): 37-47.

Collins, Ronald K.L., and David M. Skover. “What is War: Reflections on Free Speech in Wartime.” Rutgers Law Journal  36 (2005): 833+

Cook, Timothy E., ed.  Freeing the Presses: The First Amendment in Action.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005.

Copeland, David.  The Idea of a Free Press: The Enlightenment and Its Unruly Legacy.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2006. 

Cortner, Richard C.  The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Cronin, Mary M., ed.  An Indispensable Liberty: The Fight for Free Speech in Nineteenth-Century America.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2016.*

Cross, Harold L.  The People’s Right to Know.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1953.

Curtis, Michael Kent. Free Speech, the Peoples’ Darling Privilege: Struggles for Freedom of Expression in American History.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.

Easton, Eric B. “The Press as Constitutional Litigator: Shaping First Amendment Doctrine in the United States Supreme Court.”  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2011.

Easton, Eric B.  Defending the Masses: A Progressive Lawyer’s Battles for Free Speech.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2018.

Eldridge, Larry D.  A Distant Heritage: The Growth of Free Speech in Early America.  New York: New York University Press, 1993.

Epps, Garrett, ed.  Freedom of the Press: The First Amendment, its Constitutional History and the Contemporary Debate.  Amherst, NY:  Prometheus Books, 2008.

Feldman, Stephen M.  Free Expression and Democracy in America: A History.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Foner, Eric.  The Story of American Freedom.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.

Gajda, Amy. “Judging Journalism: The Turn toward Privacy and Judicial Regulation of the Press.” California Law Review 97 (August 2009): 1039–1105.

Garnett, Richard W.  “Less Is More: Justice Rehnquist, the Freedom of Speech, and Democracy.” in The Rehnquist Legacy, ed. Craig Bradley.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Gates, Paul H. Jr., and Bill F. Chamberlin. “Madison Misinterpreted: Historical Presentism Skews Scholarship.” American Journalism 13, no. 1 (1996): 38–47.

Gerald, J. Edward.  The Press and the Constitution, 1931-1947.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1948.

Gleason, Timothy W. “Legal Advocacy and the First Amendment: Elisha Hanson’s Attempt to Create First Amendment Protection for the Business of the Press.” American Journalism 3 (1986): 195–206.

Gleason, Timothy W. “Nineteenth-Century Legal Practice and Freedom of the Press: An Introduction to an Unfamiliar Terrain.” Journalism History 14:1 (Spring 1987): 26-33.

Gleason, Timothy W.  “Historians and Freedom of the Press Since 1800.” American Journalism 5 (1988): 230-248.

Halperin, Terri Diane.  The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798: Testing the Constitution.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016.

Haynes, Charles C., Sam Chaltain, and Susan M. Glisson.  First Freedoms: A Documentary History of First Amendment Rights in America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Healy, Thomas.  The Great Dissent: How Oliver Wendell Holmes Changed his Mind- and Changed the History of Free Speech in America.  New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013.

Hindman, Elizabeth B.  “Supreme Court Conceptions of Press Responsibility, 1931 to 1991.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1994.

Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks.  “First Amendment Theories and Press Responsibility: The Work of Zechariah Chafee, Thomas Emerson, Vincent Blasi and Edwin Baker.”  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992): 48-64.

Hochman, Steven H.  “On the Liberty of the Press in Virginia: From Essay to Bludgeon 1798-1803.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 84 (1976): 431-445.

Hudson, David L.  Let the Students Speak: A History of the Fight for Free Expression in American Schools.  Boston: Beacon Press, 2011.

Hughes, Frank L.  Prejudice and the Press: A Restatement of the Principle of Freedom of the Press with Specific Reference to the Hutchins-Luce Commission.  New York: Devin-Adair, 1950.

Hynes, Terry.  “A Conversation with Leonard Levy.”  Journalism History 7:3/4 (Autumn-Winter 1980): 96-103.

Ingelhart, Louis E.  Press and Speech Freedoms in America, 1619-1995: A Chronology.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Johnson, Donald.  The Challenge to American Freedom.  World War I and the Rise of the American Civil Liberties Union.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1963.

Johnson, Gerald White.  Peril and Promise: An Inquiry into Freedom of the Press.  New York: Harper, 1958.

Kalven, Jr., Harry.  A Worthy Tradition: Freedom of Speech in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Knudson, Jerry W.  Jefferson and the Press: Crucible of Liberty.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Kutulas, Judy.  The American Civil Liberties Union & the Making of Modern Liberalism, 1930–1960.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Labrunski, Ricard.  James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Labunski, Richard. Libel and the First Amendment: Legal History and Practice in Print and Broadcasting. New York: Routledge, 2017. 

Levinson, Nan.  Outspoken: Free Speech Stories.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Levy, Leonard. The Emergence of a Free Press.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Levy, Leonard. Jefferson and Civil Liberties.  Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1989. (originally published in 1963)

Lewis, Anthony.  Freedom for the Thought We Hate: A Biography of the First Amendment.  New York: Basic Books, 2008.

Lidsky, Lurissa Barnett, and R. George Wright.  Freedom of the Press: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004.

Lofton, John.  The Press as Guardian of the First Amendment.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1980.

Lynskey, Bill.  “Reinventing the First Amendment in Wartime Philadelphia.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 131 (January 2007): 33–80.

Martin, Robert W. T.  The Free and Open Press: The Founding of American Democratic Press Liberty, 1640-1800.  New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Mathewson, Joe.  “The Long and Strong Tradition of State Protection of Freedom of the Press” American Journalism 25:4 (Winter 2009): 81-112.

McLean, Deckle.  “Justice White and the First Amendment.”  Journalism Quarterly 56 (1979): 305-310.

McClellan, Grant S., ed.  Censorship in the United States.  New York: H.W. Wilson, 1967.

McIntyre, Jerilyn S.  “Repositioning a Landmark: The Hutchins Commission and Freedom of the Press.”  Critical Studies in Mass Communication 4 (1987): 135-160.

McPherson, James B. “Crosses Before a Government Vampire: How Four Newspapers Addressed the First Amendment in Editorials, 1962–1991.” American Journalism 13, no. 3 (1996): 304–17.

Mellen, Roger P. “A Culture of Dissidence: The Emergence of Liberty of the Press in Pre-Revolutionary Virginia.”  PhD dissertation, George Mason University, 2007.

Mellen, Roger P.  “John Wilkes and the Constitutional Right to a Free Press in the United States.”  Journalism History 41:1 (Spring 2015): 2-10.

Murphy, Paul L.  The Shaping of the First Amendment, 1791 to the Present.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Nerone, John.  Violence Against the Press: Policing the Public Sphere in U.S. History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Neuborne, Burt.  Madison’s Music: On Reading the First Amendment.  New York: New Press, 2015.

Peters, John D.  Courting the Abyss: Free Speech and the Liberal Tradition.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Pohlman, H.L.  Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Free Speech and the Living Constitution.  New York: New York University Press, 1991.

Powe, Lucas A., Jr.  The Fourth Estate and the Constitution: Freedom of the Press in America.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Ragan, Fred D.  “Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and Zechariah Chafee, Jr.”  Journal of American History 58 (June 1971).

Rivera, Clark.  “Ideals, Interests, and Civil Liberty: The Colonial Press and Freedom, 1735-76.”  Quarterly 55 (Spring 1978): 45-53.

Russomanno, Joseph, ed.  Defending the First: Commentary on First Amendment Issues and Cases.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005.

Scherr, Arthur.  “Thomas Jefferson, the ‘Libertarian’ Jeffersonians of 1799, and Leonard W. Levy’s Freedom of the Press: A Reconsideration.” Journalism History 42:2 (Summer 2016): 58-69.

Shear, Kenneth.  Unoriginal Misunderstanding: Press Freedom in Early America and Interpretation of the First Amendment. Seattle: Libertary, 2009. 

Simon, James F.  The Antagonists: Hugo Black, Felix Frankfurter, and Civil Liberties in Modern America.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Sloan, Wm. David. “Historians and Freedom of the Press, 1690-1801: Libertarian or Limited?” American Journalism 5 (1988), 159-177.

Smolla, Rodney A.  Free Speech in an Open Society.  New York: Knopf, 1992.

Stein, Laura.  Speech Rights in America: The First Amendment, Democracy, and the Media.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Stoker, Kevin.  “The Journalist and the Juror: Political Adversaries Enlisted in ‘A Long Campaign on Behalf of Civil Liberties.”  Journalism History 34:4 (Winter 2009): 216-229.  Justice Frankfurter and Geoffrey Parsons of the NY Herald Tribune.

Stone, Geoffrey R.  Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism.  New York: Norton, 2004.

Stone, Geoffrey R.  “The Hustler: Justice Rehnquist and ‘The Freedom of Speech, or of the Press.” in The Rehnquist Legacy, ed. Craig Bradley.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Teeter, Dwight L.  “King’ Sears, the Mob, and Freedom of the Press in New York, 1765-1776.”  Journalism Quarterly 41 (1964): 539-544.

Uhm, Kiyul. “The Founders and the Revolutionary Underpinning of the Concept of the Right to Know.”  Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 85 (Summer 2008): 393–417.

Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin.  “Protecting Press Freedom and Access to Government Information in Antebellum South Carolina.” Journalism History 43:4 (Winter 2018): 198-208.

Yalof, David A., and Kenneth Dautrich.  The First Amendment and the Media in the Court of Public Opinion.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Walker, Stanley.  In Defense of American Liberty: A History of the ACLU.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Weinrib, Laura.  The Taming of Free Speech: America’s Civil Liberties Compromise.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Seditious Libel and Political Expression

Anderson, David A.  “Freedom of the Press in Wartime.”  University of Colorado Law Review 77:1 (2006): 49–99.

Baldasty, Gerald J. “Toward and Understanding of the First Amendment: Boston Newspapers, 1782-1791.” Journalism History 3 (1976): 25-30, 32.

Bekken, Jon.  “These Great and Dangerous Powers: Postal Censorship of the Press.”  Journal of Communication Inquiry 15 (Winter 1991): 55-71.

Belknap, Michal R.  Cold War Political Justice: The Smith Act, the Communist Party, and American Civil Liberties.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Berns, Walter.  “Freedom of the Press and the Alien and Sedition Acts: A Reappraisal.”  Supreme Court Law Review.  (1970): 109-159.

Blanchard, Margaret A. “Freedom of the Press in World War II: Historiographic Essay.” American Journalism 12 (Summer 1995): 342-358.

Bowles, Dorothy.  “Newspaper Support for Free Expression in Times of Alarm, 1920 and 1940.”  Journalism Quarterly 54 (Summer 1977): 271-279.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick.  “Property, Power, and Press Freedom: Emergence of the Fourth Estate, 1640-1789.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 13:1 (Spring 2011).

Capazzola, Christopher.  “The Only Badge You Need is your Patriotic Fervor: Vigilance, Coercion, and the Law in World War I America.”  Journal of American History 48 (March 2002): 1354-1382.

Carroll, Thomas F.  “Freedom of Speech and of the Press in War Time: The Espionage Act.”  Michigan Law Review 17: 8 (June 1919): 621-665.

Cobb-Reilly, Linda.  “Aliens and Alien Ideas: The Suppression of Anarchists and the Anarchist Press in America, 1901-1914.”  Journalism History 15:2/3 (Summer-Autumn 1988): 50-59.

Coben, Stanley.  A. Mitchell Palmer: Politician.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.

Cogley, John.  Report on Blacklisting.  Vol 1: Movies, Vol 2: Radio-Television.  New York: Fund for the Republic, 1956.

Cohen, Jeremy. “Absence of the First Amendment in Schenck vs. United States: A Reexamination.” American Journalism 2 (1985): 49–64.

Costa, Gregg.  “John Marshall, the Sedition Act, and Free Speech in the Early Republic.”  Texas Law Review 77 (March 1999): 1011-1047.

Dickerson, Donna Lee.  The Course of Tolerance: Freedom of the Press in Nineteenth-Century America.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Dickerson, Donna L. “From Suspension to Subvention: The Southern Press During Reconstruction, 1863–1870.” American Journalism 8, no. 4 (1991): 230–45.

Dowell, Eldridge F.  A History of Criminal Syndicalism Legislation in the United States.  New York: DaCapo, reprint of 1939 edition.

Engelman, Ralph, and Carey Shenkman. A Century of Repression: The Espionage Act and Freedom of the Press. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2022.

Freeberg, Ernest. Democracy’s Prisoner: Eugene V. Debs, the Great War, and the Right to Dissent.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Fried, Richard.  Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Gladchuk, John Joseph. “Reticent Reds: HUAC, Hollywood, and the Evolution of the Red Menace, 1935-1950.”  PhD dissertation, University of California- Riverside, 2006.   

Glende, Philip M. “Victor Berger’s Dangerous Ideas: Censoring the Mail to Preserve National Security during World War I.” Essays in Economic and Business History 26 (2008): 5–20.

Goldstein, Robert Justin.  American Blacklist: The Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Goldstein, Robert Justin. American Blacklist: The Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Goodall, Alex.  Loyalty and Liberty: American Counter-subversion From World War I to the McCarthy Era.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Harris, Robert J. “The Impact of the Cold War on Civil Liberties.”  Journal of Politics 18:1 (February 1956): 3-16.

Haverty-Stacke, Donna T.  Trotskyists on Trial: Free Speech and Political Persecution Since the Age of FDR.  New York: NYU Press, 2016.

Jaffe, Julian F.  Crusade Against Radicalism.  Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1975.

Jensen, Joan M.  The Price of Vigilance.  Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968.  (patriotic citizens groups)

Kutler, Stanley I.  The American Inquisition: Justice and Injustice in the Cold War. New York: Hill & Wang, 1982.

Lawrence, Thomas A.  “Eclipse of Liberty: Civil Liberties and the United States During the First World War.”  Wayne Law Review 21 (1974): 33-112.

Lehman, Forrest K. “‘Seditious Libel’ on Trial, Political Dissent on the Record: An Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper as Campaign Literature.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 132 (April 2008): 117–39.

Leidholdt, Alexander Stewart.  “Dancing With Two Cork Legs: The American Post Office’s Stumbling Surveillance of the Foreign-Language Press During World War I.” Journalism History 46:3 (2020): 227-247.

Lendler, Marc.  Gitlow v. New York: Every Idea an Incitement.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

Levy, Leonard.  “Did the Zenger Case Really Matter?  Freedom of the Press in Colonial New York.”  William and Mary Quarterly 17:1 (January 1960): 35-50.

Lichtman, Robert M.  The Supreme Court and McCarthy-Era Repression: One Hundred Decisions.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Luff, Jennifer.  Commonsense Anticommunism: Labor and Civil Liberties Between the World Wars.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Lynch, Shawn Michael. “‘In defense of true Americanism’: The Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts and Radical Free Speech, 1915–1945.”  PhD dissertation, Boston College, 2006.

Lynskey, Bill. “Reinventing the First Amendment in Wartime Philadelphia.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 131:1 (January 2007): 33-80.

Lynskey, Bill.  “‘I Shall Speak in Philadelphia’: Emma Goldman and the Free Speech League.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 133 (April 2009): 167–202.

Mann, Robert.  Wartime Dissent in America: A History and Anthology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

May, Matthew S.  Soapbox Rebellion: The Hobo Orators Union and the Free Speech Fights of the Industrial Workers of the World, 1909-1916.  Tuscaloosa: University Press of Alabama, 2013.

Miller, John C.  Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.

Mulcrone, Mick. “Those Miserable Little Hounds: World War I Postal Censorship of the Irish World.” Journalism History20:1 (Spring 1994): 15-24. 

Murphy, Paul J.  The Meaning of Freedom of Speech: First Amendment Freedoms from Wilson to FDR. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972.

Murphy, Paul J.  World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.

Nelson, Harold L.  “Seditious Libel in Colonial America.” American Journal of Legal History 3 (April 1959): 160-172.

Olson, Alison.  “The Zenger Case Revisited: Satire, Sedition, and Political Debate in Eighteenth Century America.” Early American Literature 35:3 (2000): 223-245.

Parramore, James R.  “State Constitutions and the Press: Historical Context and Resurgence of a Libertarian Tradition.”  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992): 105-123.

Paxton, Mark.   Censorship.  Westport: Greenwood, 2008.

Pember, Don R.  “The Smith Act as a Restraint on the Press.”  Journalism Monographs 10 ( May 1969).

Polenberg, Richard.  Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court and Free Speech. New York: Viking Press, 1987.

Preston, William.  Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933, second edition.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Rabban, David M.  “The Ahistorical Historian: Leonard Levy on Freedom of Expression in Early American History.”  Stanford Law Review 37 (February 1985).

Rabban, David M.  Free Speech in its Forgotten Years.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Ragan, Fred D. “Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Zechariah Chafee, Jr. and the Clear and Present Danger Test for Free Speech: The First Year, 1919.” Journal of American History 58, no.1 (June 1971): 24-45.

Rivera, Clark. “Ideals, Interests, and Civil Liberty: The Colonial Press and Freedom, 1735-1776.” Journalism Quarterly 55 (1978): 48-53, 124.

Robins, Natalie.  Alien Ink: The FBI’s War on Freedom of Expression. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

Sayer, John.  “Art and Politics, Dissent and Repression: The Masses Magazine Versus the Government, 1917-1918.”  American Journal of Legal History 32 (January 1988): 42-78.

Scheiber, Harry N.  The Wilson Administration and Civil Liberties.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1960.

SchreckerEllen.  Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1998.

Sheft, Mark A.  “The End of the Smith Act Era: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Scales v. United States.”  American Journal of Legal History 36 (April 1992): 164-202.

Sloan, Wm. David. “The Party Press and Freedom of the Press, 1798–1808.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 82–96.

Smith, Craig R., ed.  Silencing the Opposition: Government Strategies of Suppression of Freedom of Expression.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Smith, Craig R., ed.  Silencing the Opposition: How the U.S. Government Suppressed Freedom of Expression During Major Crises. 2ed.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011.

Smith, James Morton.  Freedom’s Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Law and American Civil Liberties. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1956.

Smith, Jeffery A.  Printers and Press Freedom: The Ideology of Early American Press Freedom.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Smith, Jeffery A.  War and Press Freedom: The Problem of Prerogative Power. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Stauffer, Samuel A.  Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties.  New York: Doubleday, 1955.

Steele, Richard W.  Free Speech in the Good War. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Stoker, Kevin. “The Journalist and the Jurist: Political Adversaries Enlisted in a Long Campaign on behalf of Civil Liberties.” Journalism History 34:4 (Winter 2009): 216-229.  Felix Frankfurter and Geoffrey Parsons (NY Herald Tribune)

Theoharis, Athan.  “The FBI, the Roosevelt Administration, and the ‘Subversive’ Press.”  Journalism History 19:1 (Spring 1993): 3-10.

Thomas, William H., Jr.  Unsafe for Democracy: World War I and the U.S. Justice Department’s Covert Campaign to Suppress Dissent.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

Tushnet, Mark, ed.  The Constitution in Wartime: Beyond Alarmism and Complacency.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.

Walker, Samuel.  In Defense of Liberty: A History of the ACLU.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Ward, Kenneth, and Aimee Edmondson. “The Espionage Conviction of Kansas City Editor Jacob Frohwerk: ‘A Clear and Present Danger’ to the United States.” Journal of Media Law & Ethics 6: 1/2 (Summer/Fall 2017): 39-56.

Work, Clemens P. Darkest Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005.

Work, Clemens P.  “‘Good Night with the Stars and Stripes, Army, Navy, and Mister Damned Wilson’: Montana’s Central Role in the Repression—and Eventual Recognition—of Free Speech.” Montana 55 (Winter 2005): 16–35.

Young, Ralph.  Dissent: The History of an American Idea.  New York: New York University Press, 2015.

Obscenity, Sexuality, and Morality

Alexander, James R. “Roth at Fifty: Reconsidering the Common Law Antecedents of American Obscenity Doctrine.”  John Marshall Law Review 41 (Winter 2008): 393–434.

Allen, Robert C.  Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque and American Culture.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Bailey, Martha J. “‘Momma’s Got the Pill’: How Anthony Comstock and Griswold v. Connecticut Shaped U.S. Childbearing.” American Economic Review 100 (March 2010): 98–129.

Bates, Anna Louise.  Weeder in the Garden of the Lord: Anthony Comstock’s Life and Career.  New York: University Press of America, 1995.

Beisel, Nocal Kay.  Imperiled Innocents: Anthony Comstock and Family Reproduction in Victorian America.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Bekken, Jon.  “These Great and Dangerous Powers: Postal Censorship of the Press.” Journal of Communication Inquiry 15 (Winter 1991): 55-71.

Bezanson, Randall P. Art and Freedom of Speech. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Blanchard, Margaret A., and John E Semonche.  “Anthony Comstock and his Adversaries: The Mixed Legacy of this Battle for Free Speech.”  Communication Law and Policy 11 (Fall 2006): 317-366.

Blecha, Peter.  Taboo Tunes: A History of Banned Bands and Censored Songs.  San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2004.

Boyer, Paul S.  Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America. rev. ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

Brodie, Janet F.  Conception and Abortion in 19th Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Bronstein, Carolyn.  Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, 1976-1986.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Broun, Heywood, and Margaret Leech.  Anthony Comstock: Roundsman of the Lord.  New York: Boni, 1927.

Cadegan, Una M.  “Guardians of Democracy or Cultural Storm Troopers?  American Catholics and the Control of Popular Media, 1934-1966.”  Catholic Historical Review 87:2 (April 2001): 252-282.

Cadegan, Una M. All Good Books are Catholic Books: Print Culture, Censorship, and Modernity in Twentieth-Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Charles, Douglas M.  The FBI’s Obscene File: J. Edgar Hoover and the Bureau’s Crusade against Smut.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

Childs, Elizabeth C., ed.  Suspended License: Censorship and the Visual Arts.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.

Craig, John M.  “The Sex Side of Life: The Obscenity Case of Mary Ware Dennett.” Frontiers 15:3 (1995): 145-166.  (birth control information)

Cronin, Mary M.  “The Liberty to Argue Freely: Nineteenth Century Obscenity Prosecutions and the Emergence of Modern Libertarian Free Speech Discourse.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 8:3 (Autumn 2006): 164-219.

Daniels, Walter M., ed.  The Censorship of Books. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1954.

de Grazia, Edward.  Censorship Landmarks.  New York: Bowker, 1969.

de Grazia, Edward.  Girls Lean Back Everywhere: The Law of Obscenity and the Assault on Genius.  New York: Random House, 1992.

Dennis, Donna I.  “Obscenity Law and Its Consequences in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 16 (no. 1, 2007): 43–95.

Dennis, Donna. Licentious Gotham: Erotic Publishing and Its Prosecution in Nineteenth-Century New York.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Downs, Robert B., ed.  The First Freedom: Liberty and Justice in the World of Books and Reading.  Chicago: American Library Association, 1960.

Ellis, Richard. “Disseminating Desire: Grove Press and ‘the End(s) of Obscenity’,” in Perspectives on Pornography: Sexuality in Film and Literature, Gary Day and Clive Bloom, eds.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988.

Ernst, Morris, and William Seagle.  To the Pure: A Study of Obscenity and the Censor.  New York: Viking, 1928. 

Ernst, Morris, and Alexander Lindey.  The Censor Marches On: Recent Milestones in the Administration of Obscenity Law in the United States.  New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1940. 

Ernst, Morris, and Pare Lorentz.  Censored, or the Private Life of the Movie.  New York: Cape & Smith, 1930.

Ernst, Morris L., and Alan U. Schwartz.  Censorship: The Search for the Obscene.  New York: Macmillan, 1964.

Fleishman, Stanley.  The Supreme Court Obscenity Decisions.  San Diego: Greenleaf Classic, 1973.

Forster, Chris.  Filthy Material: Modernism and the Media of Obscenity.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Foster, Gaines M.  Moral Reconstruction: Christian Lobbyists and the Federal Legislation of Morality, 1865-1920.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Fowler, Dorothy G.  Unmailable: Congress and the Post Office.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1977.

Freyer, Peter.  The Birth Controllers.  New York: Stein and Day, 1966.

Friedman, Andrea.  “The Habits of Sex-Crazed Perverts’: Campaigns Against Burlesque in Depression-Era New York City.”  Journal of the History of Sexuality 7:2 (October 1996): 203-238.

Friedman, Andrea.  Prurient Interests: Gender, Democracy, and Obscenity in New York City, 1909-1945.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Friedman, Andrea.  “Sadists and Sissies: Anti-pornography Campaigns in Cold War America.”  Gender & History 15:2 (2003): 201-227.

Friedman, Leon, ed.  Obscenity: The Complete Oral Arguments before the Supreme Court in the Major Obscenity Cases.  2 vols.  New York: Chelsea House, 1983.

Friskin, Amanda.  Victoria Woodhull’s Sexual Revolution: Political Theater and the Popular Press in Nineteenth Century America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Frisken, Amanda. “Obscenity, Free Speech, and ‘Sporting News’ in 1870s America.” Journal of American Studies 42 (December 2008): 537–577.

Fuller, Wayne E.  Morality and the Mail in Nineteenth Century America.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Gardiner, Harold C.  The Catholic Viewpoint on Censorship.  New York: Image Books, 1961.

Garrison, Dee.  “Immoral Fiction in the Late Victorian Library.”  American Quarterly 28:1 (Spring 1976): 71-89.

Gary, Brett.  Dirty Works: Obscenity on Trial in America’s First Sexual Revolution. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2021.

Gertzman, Jay A.  “John Saxton Sumner of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice: A Chief Smut Eradicator of the Interwar Period.”  Journal of American Culture 17:2 (June 1994): 41-47.

Gertzman, Jay A.  Bookleggers and Smuthounds: The Trade in Erotica, 1920-1940.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Gillers, Stephen. “A Tendency to Deprave and Corrupt: The Transformation of American Obscenity Law from Hicklin to Ulysses II.”  Washington University Law Review 85 (no. 2, 2007): 215–296.

Goldstein, Al, and Josh Alan Friedman.  I, Goldstein: My Screwed Life.  Boston: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006.

Gordon, Sarah B.  “Blasphemy and the Law of Religious Freedom in 19th Century America.”  American Quarterly 52 (December 2000): 682-719.

Gordon, George N.  Erotic Communications: Studies in Sex, Sin, and Censorship.  New York: Hastings House, 1980.

Gordon, Linda.  Women’s Body, Women’s Right: A History of Birth Control in America.  New York: Grossman, 1976.

Gurstein, Rochelle.  The Repeal of Reticence: A History of America’s Cultural and Legal Struggles Over Free Speech, Obscenity, Sexual Liberation, and Modern Art.  New York, 1996.

Haight, Anne L.  Banned Books.  New York: Bowker, 1978.

Heins, Marjorie.  Sex, Sin, and Blasphemy: A Guide to America’s Censorship Wars.  New York: New Press, 1998.

Heins, Marjorie.  Not in Front of the Children: “Indecency,” Censorship, and the Innocence of Youth.  New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Hijar, Katherine Noel. “Sexuality, Print, and Popular Visual Culture in the United States, 1830–1870.”  PhD dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 2009.

Hixson, Richard.  Pornography and the Justices: The Supreme Court and the Intractable Obscenity Problem.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996.

Hoffman, Brian. “`A Certain Amount of Prudishness’: Nudist Magazines and the Liberalization of American Obscenity Law, 1947–58.” Gender & History 22 (November 2010), 708–732.

Horowitz, Helen L.  “Victorial Woodhull, Anthony Comstock, and Conflict over Sex in the United States in the 1870s.”  Journal of American History 87 (September 2000): 403-434.

Hovey, Elizabeth B.  “Stamping Out Smut: The Enforcement of Obscenity Laws, 1872-1915.”  PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1998.

Hutchison, Earl R.  Tropic of Cancer on Trial.  New York: Grove Press, 1968.

Jensen, Robin E.  Dirty Words: The Rhetoric of Public Sex Education, 1870-1924.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Kendrick, Walter.  The Secret Museum: Pornography in Modern Culture.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Kirkpatrick, James J.  The Smut Peddlers.  New York: Avon, 1960.

Lambert, Josh.  Unclean Lips: Obscenity, Jews, and American Culture.  New York: NYU Press, 2014.

Lawrence, Patrick.  Obscene Gestures: Counter-Narratives of Sex and Race in the Twentieth Century.  New York: Fordham University Press, 2022.

Legman, Gershon.  Love & Death: A Study in Censorship.  New York: Hacker Art, 1963.

Lewis, Felice Flannery.  Literature, Obscenity, and Law.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1976. 

Loth, David.  The Erotic in Literature.  New York: Messner, 1961.

McCorison, Marcus A. “Printers and the Law: The Trials of Publishing Obscene Libel in Early America.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 104 (June 2010): 181–217.

Meyer, Richard.  Outlaw Representation: Censorship and Homosexuality in Twentieth Century American Art.  Boston: Beacon Press, 2002.

Miller, Neil.  Banned in Boston: The Watch and Ward Society’s Crusade Against Books, Burlesque, and the Social Evil.  Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.

Morgan, Bill, and Nancy J. Peters, eds.  Howl on Trial: The Battle for Free Expression.  San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2006.

Murphree, Vanessa, and Karla K. Gower. “‘Making Birth Control Respectable’: The Birth Control Review, 1917–1928.” American Journalism 30 (Spring 2013): 210–234.

Parker, Alison M.  Purifying America: Women, Cultural Reform, and Pro-Censorship Activism, 1873-1933.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Paul, James C.N., and Murray L. Schwartz.  Federal Censorship: Obscenity in the Mails.  New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1961.

Picard, Alyssa.  “To Popularize the Nude in Art: Comstockery Reconsidered.”  Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 1:3 (July 2002): 195-224.

Pierce, Jennifer B.  What Adolescents Ought to Know: Sexual Health Texts in Early Twentieth-Century America.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011.

Popescu, Mihaela. “Keeping It Dirty: Defining and Redefining Obscenity in American Judicial Discourse 1873–2007.  PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2008.

Potter, Rachel.  “Obscene Modernism and the Trade in Salacious Books.”  modernism / modernity 16:1 (January 2009): 87–104.

Rivera-Sanchez, Milagros.  “Developing an Indecency Standard: The FCC and the Regulation of Offensive Speech, 1927-1964.” Journalism History 20:1 (Spring 1994): 3-14.

Roessner, Lori Amber, and Matthewe Broddus. “The Sinners and the Scapegoat: Public Reaction in the Press to Mae West’s Adam and Eve Skit.” American Journalism 30:4 (Fall 2013): 520-546.

Sears, Hal D.  The Sex Radicals: Free Love in High Victorian America.  Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 1977.

Segal, Lynne, and Mary McIntosh, eds.  Sex Exposed: Sexuality and the Pornography Debates.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Semonche, John E.  Censoring Sex: A Historical Journey through American Media.  Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Silberman, Marsha. “The Perfect Storm: Late Nineteenth-Century Chicago Sex Radicals; Moses Harman, Ida Craddock, Alice Stockham, and the Comstock Obscenity Laws.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 102 (Fall–Winter 2009): 324–367.

Spear, Lisa K.  “Paperback Pornography: Mass Market Novels and Censorship in Postwar America.”  Journal of American Culture 24 (Fall/Winter 2001): 153-160.

Strub, Whitney Vincent. “Perversion for Profit: The Politics of Obscenity and Pornography in the Postwar United States.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 2006.   

Strub, Whitney.  “Perversion for Profit: Citizens for Decent Literature and the Arousal of an Antiporn Public in the 1960s.”  Journal of the History of Sexuality 15:2 (May 2006): 258-291.

Strub, Whitney. “Lavender, Menaced: Lesbianism, Obscenity Law, and the Feminist Antipornography Movement.” Journal of Women’s History 22 (Summer 2010): 83–107.

Strub, Whitney. Obscenity Rules: Roth v. United States and the Long Struggle over Sexual Expression.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2013.

Smith, Jeffery A.  “Moral Guardians and the Origins of the Right to Privacy.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 10:1 (Spring 2008): 64-110.

Stone, Geoffrey R.  Sex and the Constitution: Sex, Religion, and Law from America’s Origins to the Twenty-First Century.  New York: Liveright, 2017.

Strub, Whitney.  “Lavender, Menaced: Lesbianism, Obscenity Law, and the Feminist Anti-pornography Movement.” Journal of Women’s History 22 (Summer 2010): 83–107.

Taylor, Leslie A.  “I Made Up My Mind to Get it’: The American Trial of The Well of Loneliness, New York City 1928-1929.”  Journal of the History of Sexuality 10:2 (April 2001): 250-286.

Tepper, Steven J.  Not Here, Not Now, Not That! Protest over Art and Culture in America.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. 

Tone, Andrea.  Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America.  New York: Hill & Wang, 2001.

Thacker, Andrew.  “The Pure and the Dirty: Censorship, Obscenity, and the Modern Bookshop.” Modernism/modernity29:3 (September 2022): 519-541.

Ullman, Sharon.  Sex Seen: The Emergence of Modern Sexuality in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Wartzman, Rick.  Obscene in the Extreme: The Burning and Banning of John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.  New York: Public Affairs Press, 2008.

Werbel, Amy.  Lust on Trial: Censorship and the Rise of Obscenity in the Age of Anthony Comstock.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2018.

Wheeler, Leigh Ann.  “Battling Over Burlesque: Conflicts Between Maternalism, Paternalism, and Organized Labor, Minneapolis, Minnesota 1920-1932.”  Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 20:2 (1999): 148-174.

Wheeler, Leigh Ann.  Against Obscenity: Reform and the Politics of Womanhood, 1873-1935.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Wheeler, Leigh Ann.  “Where Else but Greenwich Village?: Love, Lust, and the Emergence of the American Civil Liberties Union Sexual Rights Agenda, 1920-1931.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 21:1 (January 2012): 60-92.

Wheeler, Leigh Ann.  How Sex Became a Civil Liberty.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Williams, Linda.  Screening Sex. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Wittern-Keller, Laura, and Raymond J. Haberski Jr.  The Miracle Case: Film Censorship and the Supreme Court.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Wood, Janice Ruth. “Foote Work for Free Speech: The Contributions of Doctors Edward Bliss Foote and Edward Bond Foote to Anti-Comstock Operations, 1872­1915.” PhD dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 2004. 

Wood, Janice Ruth.  The Struggle for Free Speech in the United States, 1872-1915.  New York: Routledge, 2007.  women’s health information

Wood, Janice.  “Physicians and Obscenity: A Struggle for Free Speech, 1872-1915.” Journalism History 36:1 (Spring 2010): 36-44.

Libel, Freedom of Information, Privacy, Prior Restraint

Barbas, Samantha.  Laws of Image: Privacy and Publicity in America.  Palo Alto: Stanford Law Books, 2016.

Barbas, Samantha.  Newsworthy: The Supreme Court Battle Over Privacy and Press Freedom.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2017.

Barbas, Samantha.  Actual Malice: Civil Rights and Freedom of the Press in New York Times v. Sullivan.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2023.

Bowles, Dorothy.  “Newspaper Attention to (and Support of) First Amendment Cases, 1919-1969.”  Journalism Quarterly 66:3 (Autumn 1989): 579-586.

Brucker, Herbert.  Freedom of Information.  New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Cain, Brett Butler. “Contempt by Publication in Nineteenth-Century America” PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2007.

Cooper, Kent.  The Right to Know: An Exposition of the Evils of News Suppression and Propaganda.  New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1956.

Cross, Harold L.  The People’s Right to Know.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1953.

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel.  Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Digby-Junger, Richard.  “News in Which the Public May Take an Interest: A Nineteenth Century Precedent for New York Times v Sullivan.”  American Journalism 12:1 (Winter 1995): 22-38.

Douglas, William O.  The People’s Right to Know.  Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1958.

Easton, Eric B. “The Colonel’s Finest Campaign: Robert R. McCormick and Near v. Minnesota.”  Federal Communications Law Journal 60 (March 2008): 183–228.

Edgar, Harold, and Benno C. Schmidt.  “The Espionage Statutes and Publication of Defense Information.”  Columbia Law Review 73:5 (May 1973): 930-1087.

Ferrier, Patricia. “There Ought to Be a Law: The Moral and Legal Aspects of Privacy from the Nineteenth-Century Press to Twenty-First Century Attempts to Protect Individual Privacy.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 2004. 

Forde, Kathy Roberts.  “Narrative Journalism on Trial: A Social and Cultural History of Masson v. New Yorker.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, 2005.

Forde, Kathy Roberts. “Libel, Freedom of the Press, and the New Yorker.”  American Journalism 23 (Fall 2006): 61–91. 

Friendly, Fred.  Minnesota Rag: The Dramatic Story of the Landmark Supreme Court Case that Gave New Meaning to Freedom of the Press. New York: Random House, 1981.

Gordon, A. David.  “Protection of News Sources: The History and Legal Status of the Newsman’s Privilege.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971.

Gregg, Leigh F.  “The First Amendment in the 19th Century: Journalists’ Privilege and Congressional Investigation.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1984.

Hall, Kermit L. and Melvin Urofsky.  New York Times v. Sullivan: Civil Rights, Libel Law, and the Free Press.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.

Hopkins, W. Wat, ed.  “New York Times Co. v. Sullivan Forty Years Later.”  Communication Law and Policy 9 (2004).  (special issue)

Johns, Adrian.  Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Kennedy, George.  “Advocates of Openness: The Freedom of Information Movement.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1978.

Kielbowicz, Richard B. “The Role of News Leaks in Governance and the Law of Journalists’ Confidentiality, 1795-2005.”  San Diego Law Review 43 (Summer 2006): 425-94.

Kostyu, Paul E. “Nothing More, Nothing Less: Case Law Leading to the Freedom of Information Act.” American Journalism 12, no. 4 (1995): 462–76.

Lebovic, Samuel Martin. “Fighting for Free Information: American Democracy and the Problem of Press Freedom in a Totalitarian Age, 1920–1950.”  PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2011.

Levine, Lee, and Stephen Wermiel.  The Progeny: Justice William J. Brennan’s Fight to Preserve the Legacy of New York Times v. Sullivan.  Washington DC: American Bar Association, 2014.

Lewis, Anthony.  Make No Law: The Sullivan Case and the First Amendment.  New York: Random House, 1991.

McKay, Floyd J.  “First Amendment Guerillas: Formative Years of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 6:3 (Autumn 2004).

Morrissey, David H.  “Disclosure and Secrecy: Security Classification Executive Orders.”  Journalism Monographs 148 (August 1997).

Nieburg, Harold L.  Nuclear Secrecy and Foreign Policy.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1964.

O’Brien, David M.  The Public’s Right to Know: The Supreme Court and the First Amendment.  New York: Praeger, 1981.

Pember, Don R.  “The Pentagon Papers Decision: More Questions than Answers.”  Journalism Quarterly 48 (Autumn 1971): 403-411.

Pilgrim, Tim A. “Privacy and American Journalism: An Economic Connection.” Journalism History 14:1 (Spring 1987): 18-25.

Raymond, Allen.  The People’s Right to Know: A Report on Government News Suppression.  New York: ACLU, 1955.

Rodgers, Ronald R.  “Journalism is a Loose-Jointed Thing:  A Content Analysis of Editor & Publisher’s Discussion of Journalistic Conduct Prior to the Canons of Journalism, 1901-1922.”  Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22:1 (2007): 66-82.

Rosenberg, Norman L.  Protecting the Best Men: An Interpretive History of the Law of Libel.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Scherer, Mark R.  Rights in the Balance: Free Press, Fair Trial, and Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart.  Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2008.

Shils, Edward A.  The Torment of Secrecy.  New York: Free Press, 1956.

Spellman, Robert L. “Misconceptions and Criminal Prosecutions: Theodore Roosevelt and the Panama Canal Libels.” American Journalism 11, no. 1 (1994): 39–60.

Lewis, Anthony.  Make No Law: The Sullivan Case and the First Amendment.  New York: Random House, 1991.

Merrill, Samuel.  Newspaper Libel: A Handbook for the Press.  Boston: Ticknor and Co., 1888.

Swain, Bruce M.  “The Progressive, the Bomb, and the Papers.”  Journalism Monographs 76 (May 1982).

Uhm, Kiyul.  “The Cold War Communication Crisis: The Right to Know Movement.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 82:1 (Spring 2005): 131-147.

Ugland, Eric F.  “Newsgathering, Special Rights, and Freedom of the Press.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2003.

U.S. Congress, House.  House Committee on Governmental Operations.  Availability of Information From Federal Departments and Agencies:  Hearings Before a Subcommittee on Government Operations.  84th Cong., 1st Sess., 7 November 1955.

Wellerstein, Alex. “Knowledge and the Bomb: Nuclear Secrecy in the United States, 1939–2008.”  PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 2010.

Wiggins, James R.  Freedom or Secrecy?  New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Wiggins, James Russell.  Freedom or Secrecy.  Rev ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Wittenberg, Philip.  Dangerous Words: A Guide to the Law of Libel.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1947.

Yalof, David A., and Kenneth Dautrich.  The First Amendment and the Media in the Court of Public Opinion.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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