Ethnic and Language Minority Media

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The Black Press and Broadcasting

Aiello, Thomas.  “The Shot That Was Heard in Nearly Two Million Negro Homes: The 1934 Murder of William Alexander Scott.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 100:4 (2016): 366-403.

Aiello, Thomas.  “Editing a Paper in Hell: Davis Less and the Exigencies of Small-time Black Journalism.”  American Journalism 33:2 (Spring 2016): 144-168.

Aiello, Thomas.  “Do We Have Any Men to Follow in Her Footsteps?: The Black Southern Press and the Fight for Teacher Salary Equalization.”  History of Education Quarterly 58:1 (February 2018): 94-121.

Aiello, Thomas.  The Grapevine of the Black South: The Scott Newspaper Syndicate in the Generation Before the Civil Rights Movement.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2018.

Alexander, Ann F.  “Black Protest in the New South:  John Mitchell, Jr. (1863-1929) & the Richmond Planet,” PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1973.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh.  “Marcus Garvey and the Chicago Defender, 1917-1923.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1995.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh, ed. T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880–1928.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Alkebulan, Paul.  The African-American Press in World War II: Toward Victory at Home and Abroad.  Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.  Add to minority

Anderson, Daniel Roger.  “Renaissance Men: The Harlem Intelligentsia, the African–American Press, and the Culture of Sport, 1918–1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2005. 

Ayers, Oliver.  “The 1935 Labor Dispute at the Amsterdam News and the Challenges Posed by the Rise of Unionism in Depression-Era Harlem.” Journal of American Studies 48:3 (2014): 797-818.

Baaki, Brian.  “White Crime and the Early African American Press: Elements of Reprinting and Reporting in New York’s Freedom’s Journal.”  American Periodicals 29: 2 (2019): 121-134.

Bacon, Jacqueline.  “The History of Freedom’s Journal: A Study in Empowerment and Community.”  Journal of African American History 88 (Spring 2003): 163-181.

Bacon, Jacqueline.   Freedom’s Journal: The First African American Newspaper. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.   

Bacon, Jacqueline. “‘Acting as Freemen’: Rhetoric, Race, and Reform in the Debate over Colonization in Freedom’s Journal, 1827–1828.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 93 (February 2007): 58–83.

Bailey, Julius H.  Race Patriotism: Protest and Print Culture in the AME Church.  Knoxville: University Press of Tennessee, 2012.

Baldasty, Gerald J., and Mark E. LaPoint.  “The Press and the African-American Community: The Role of the Northwest Enterprise in the 1930s.”  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 94 (Winter 2002-2003): 14-26.

Banner-Haley, Charles Pete.  “The Philadelphia Tribune and the Persistence of Black Republicanism During the Great Depression.”  Pennsylvania History 65:2 (Spring 1998): 190-202.

Baptiste, Bala James.  Race and Radio: Pioneering Black Broadcasters in New Orleans. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2019.

Baptiste, Bala James. “Race and Local Television News: The Emergence of Black Journalists in New Orleans.” American Journalism 39:1 (2022): 4-26.

Barger, Harold M.  “Images of Political Authority in Four Types of Black Newspapers.” Journalism Quarterly 50:4 (1973): 645-651, 672.

Baum, Bruce, and Duchess Harris, eds.  Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Beard, Richard L., and Cyril E. Zoerner.  “Associated Negro Press: Its Founding, Ascendency, and Demise.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 47-52.

Bederman, Gail.  “Civilization,’ the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells’s Antilynching Campaign (1892-94).  Radical History Review 52 (1992): 5-30.

Beeching, Barbara J.  “Paul Robeson and the Black Press: The 1950 Passport Controversy.”  Journal of African American History 87 (Summer 2002): 339-354.

Beito, David T., and Linda Royster Beito.  “Selling Laissez-faire Antiracism to the Black Masses: Rose Wilder Lane and the Pittsburgh Courier.”  Independent Review 15:2 (Fall 2010): 279-294.

Berardi, Gayle K., and Thomas W. Segady.  “The Development of African American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Perspective.”  Journal of Negro History 75 (Summer/Fall 1990): 96-111.

Berardi, Gayle, and Thomas W. Segady. “Community Identification and Cultural Formation:  The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914.” Briot 10:1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.

Blain, Keisha N.  “We Want to Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944.”  Journal of Social History 49:1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.

Blocker, Jr., Jack S.  “Building Networks:  Cooperation and Communication Among African Americans in the Urban Midwest, 1860-1910.” Indiana Magazine of History 99:4 (December 2003): 370-386.

Boling, Kelli S. “We Matter: Cultural Significance of a Counter-Narrative Black Public Affairs Program.” Journalism History 47:4 (2021): 353-371.   Awareness

Borzendowski, Janice.  John Russwurm.  New York: Chelsea House, 1989.

Bowie, Rian Elizabeth. “Is There a Woman in the Text? The Black Press and the Emergence of Organized Black Womanhood, 1827–1900.”  PhD dissertation, Emory University, 2007.   

Boyd, Melba Joyce.  Wrestling with the Muse: Dudley Randall and the Broadside Press.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.   

Brent Zooks, Kristal.  I See Black People: The Rise and Fall of African American Owned Television and Radio. New York: Nation Books, 2008. 

Brooks, Maxwell.  “A Sociological Interpretation of the Negro Newspaper.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 1937.

Brooks, Maxwell R.  The Negro Press Re-Examined: Political Content of Leading Negro Newspapers. Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1959.

Brooks, Shelia, and Clint C. Wilson II.  Lucile H. Bluford and the Kansas City Call: Activist Voice for Social Justice.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2018.

Broussard, Jinx C. “Saviors or Scalawags: The Mississippi Black Press’s Contrasting Coverage of Civil Rights Workers and Freedom Summer, June-August 1964.” American Journalism19:3 (2002): 63-85.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  Giving Voice to the Voiceless: Four Pioneering Black Women Journalists.  New York: Routledge, 2004.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  “Exhortation to Action: The Writings of Amy Jacques Garvey, Journalist and Black Nationalist.”  Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 87-95.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  African American Foreign Correspondents: A History.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

Brown, Karen F.  “The Black Press of Tennessee: 1865-1980.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1982.

Brown, Kory B.  “Souled Out: Ebony Magazine in an Age of Black Power, 1965-1975.”  PhD dissertation, Howard University, 2010.

Booker, Vaughn A.  “Pulpit and Pew: African American Humor on Irreverent Religious Participation in John H. Johnson’s Negro Digest, 1943-1950.” Journal of Africana Religions 8:1 (2020): 1-36.

Bullock, Penelope.  The African-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Burma, John.  “An Analysis of the Present Negro Press.”  Social Forces 26:2 (December 1947): 172-180.

Burns, Ben.  Nitty Gritty: A White Editor in Black Journalism.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996.

Burroughs, Todd S.  “Drums in the Global Village: Toward an Ideological History of Black Media.”  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 2001.

Burroughs, Todd Steven. “Kerner’s Other Black Explosion: The Chapter 15 Mandate and the Birth of New York’s Black Public-Affairs Programming, 1967-1968.” Howard Journal of Communication 30:4 (2019): 355.370.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick.  “Who Killed the Negro World?: An Investigation into the Death of a Dissident Newspaper.” Journal of Ethnic Studies, 9 (1981), 1-12.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick. “In Common with Colored Men, I Have Certain Sentiments: Black Nationalism and Hilary Teage of the Liberia Herald.”  American Journalism 16:3 (1999): 17-35. 

Burrowes, Carl Patrick.  “Caught in the Crosswinds of the Atlantic: John Brown Russwurm, Freedom’s Journal, and African Colonization.  Journalism History 37: 3 (Fall 2011): 130-141.

Byers, Stephen Robert.  “Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers:  How Milwaukee’s Black Press Reflected its Diversity, 1968-2002.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.

Caddoo, Cara.  “Black Newspapers, Real Property, and Mobility in Memphis After Emancipation.”  Journal of African American History 102:4 (Fall 2017): 468-491.

Caldwell, H. Zahra. “I Was Anti-Everything: Cartoonist Jackie Ormes and the Comics as a Site of Progressive Black Journalism.” American Studies 59:3 (2020): 9-120.

Campbell, Brian E.  “African American Sports Journalists and Athletes as Foreign Correspondents for the Black Press, 1930-1950.” Journalism History 46:4 (2020): 358-374.

Carlisle, Anthony Todd. “The Black Press and the Shaping of Protest in African American Literature, 1840–1935.”  PhD dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Carroll, Anne Elizabeth. Word, Image, and the New Negro: Representation and Identity in the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Carroll, Brian.  “When to Stop Cheering?  The Black Press, the Black Community, and the Integration of Professional Baseball.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2003.

Carroll, Brian.  The Black Press and Black Baseball, 1915-1955: A Devil’s Bargain.  New York: Taylor and Francis, 2015.

Carroll, Fred.  Race News: Black Reporters and the Fight for Racial Justice in the Twentieth Century.   Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017.  

Carter, Jolette B. “The Role of the Black Press in the 1923 Trial of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.”  American Journalism 14:2 (1997): 131-147.

Castro, Cristian. “White Paper, Black Ink: The Black Press of Sao Paulo and Chicago, 1900–1950.” PhD dissertation, University of California, Davis, 2013.

Castronovo, Russ. “Beauty Along the Color Line: Lynching, Aesthetics, and the Crisis.” PMLA 121:5 (2006): 1443-1459.

Chapman, Erin D.  Prove it on Me: New Negroes, Sex, and Popular Culture in the 1920s.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Chase, Hal.   “Honey for Friends, Stings for Enemies’: William Calvin Chase and The Washington Bee, 1882-1921.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1973.

Cilli, Adam Lee.  “Robert L. Vann and the Pittsburgh Courier in the 1932 Presidential Election: An Analysis of Black Reformism in Interwar America.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 143:2 (April 2019): 141-176.

Clark, Naeemah, ed.  African Americans in the History of Mass Communication: A Reader.  New York: Peter Lang, 2014.

Clark, Tanya N.  “Quilting the Race:  Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, the Colored American Magazine, & the African American Family, 1900-1905.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2004.

Clark, William E. “A Pioneer Negro Newspaper:  The New York Age.” Southern Workman 52 (January 1923): 16-20.

Cohen, Laura Langer, and Jordan Alexander Stein, eds.  Early African American Print Culture.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.

Cooper, Caryl A.  “The Chicago Defender: Filling in the Gaps for the Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 23:1 (1999): 111-118.

Cooper, Caryl.  “Selling Negro Women to Negro Women and the World: Rebecca Stiles Taylor and the Chicago Defender, 1939-1945.”  Journalism History 39:4 (Winter 2014): 241-249.

Cronin, Mary M. “A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma, 1891-1915.”  Journalism History 26:2 (Spring 2000): 71-80. 

Cronin, Mary M. “Mixing Protest and Accommodation:  The  Response of Oklahoma’s Black Town Newspaper Editors to Race Relations, 1891-1918.” American Journalism 19:2 (Spring 2002): 45-64. 

Cronin, Mary M. “A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma, 1891-1915.” Journalism History 26:2 (Summer 2000): 71-80.

Cronin, Mary M.  “C.F. Richardson and the Houston Informer’s Fight for Racial Equality in the 1920s.” American Journalism 23:3 (Summer 2006): 79-103. 

Crowder, Ralph L.  “Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and John Edward Bruce:  The Relationship of a Militant Black Journalist with the ‘Father of Civil of Rights’ and the ‘Wizard of Tuskegee’.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 22:2 (July 1998): 91-110. 

Dahn, Eurie.  Jim Crow Networks: African American Periodical Cultures.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2021.

Daniel, Walter.  Black Journals of the United States.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Daniel, Walter C., and Patrick J. Huber. “The Voice of the Negro and the Atlanta Riot of 1906: A Problem in Freedom of the Press.”  Journalism History 17:1-2 (Spring-Summer 1990): 23-28.

Dann, Martin E. ed., The Black Press, 1827-1890: The Quest for National Unity.  New York: Putnam, 1971.

Davis, Henry Vance.  “The Black Press: From Mission to Commercialization, 1827-1927.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990.

Dawkins, Wayne.  Black Journalists: The NABJ Story. Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 1993. (National Association of Black Journalists)

Dawkins, Wayne.  Rugged Waters: Black Journalists Swim the Mainstream.  Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 2003.

Day Moore, Celeste. “Producing A Black World: William Greaves, Black Journal, and the Creation of a New Medium of Black Internationalism, 1968-1970.” Journal of African American History 106:4 (Fall 2021): 626-649.

Delmont, Matthew F.  Black Quotidian: Everyday History in African-American Newspapers.  Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2019.

DeSantis, Alan Douglas.  “Selling the American Dream: The Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915-1919.” PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, 1993.

DeSantis, Alan D. “A Forgotten Leader: Robert S. Abbott and the Chicago Defender from 1910-1920.”  Journalism History 23:2 (Spring 1997): 63-71.

Detweiler, Frederick.  The Negro Press in the United States.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922.

Digby-Junger, Richard.  “The Guardian, Crisis, Messenger, and Negro World:  The Early-20th-Century Black Radical Press.”  Howard Journal of Communications 9:3 (July 1998):  263-282.

Dillon, Merton L.  Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966.

Dolan, Mark K.  “Extra!: Chicago Defender Race Records Ads Show South From Afar.”  Southern Cultures 13:3 (Fall 2007): 106-124.

Dolan, Mark K. “Dave Peyton, the Chicago Defender, and Local 208.” Journal of Illinois History 11 (Autumn 2008): 154–148.

Domke, David. “The Black Press in the ‘Nadir’ of African Americans.” Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):131-138.

Doss, Erica. “Imaging the Panthers: Representing Black Power and Masculinity, 1970s-1990s.” Prospects 23 (October 1998): 483-516.

Drake, Donald E., II, “Militancy in Fortune’s New York Age.” Journal of Negro History 55:4 (1970): 307-322.

Ellis, Mark. “America’s Black Press, 1914-1918.”  History Today 41 (September 1991): 20-27.

Ellis, Charlesetta M.  “Robert S. Abbott’s Response to Education for African-Americans via the Chicago Defender, 1909-1940.” PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 1994.

Emery, Jacqueline.  “Writing to Belong: Alice Dunbar-Nelson’s Newspaper Columns in the African American Press.” Legacy 33:2 (2016): 286-309.

Engle, Susan. Robert Sengstacke Abbott: A Man, a Paper, and a Parade. Wilmette, IL: Bellwood Press, 2019. 

Enszer, Julie R.  “Fighting to Create and Maintain Our Own Black Women’s Culture: Conditions Magazine, 1977-1990.  American Periodicals 25:2 (2015): 160-176.

Evans, Linda J.  “Claude A. Barnett and the Associated Negro Press.”  Chicago History 12: 1 (Spring 1983):  44-56.

Fagan, Benjamin P.  The Black Newspaper and the Chosen Nation.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2016.

Fagan, Benjamin.  “The Fragments of Black Reconstruction.”  American Literary History 30:3 (Fall 2018): 450-465.

Farrar, Hayward.  The Baltimore Afro-American. 1892-1950.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Fee Jr., Frank E. “Blackface in Black and White: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Frederick Douglass’ Hometown Newspapers, 1847.” American Journalism 20:3 (2003): 73-92.

Fee, Frank E., Jr.  “Intelligent Union of Black and White: Frederick Douglass and the Rochester Press, 1847-48.”  Journalism History 31:1 (Spring 2005): 34-45.

Fenderson, Lewis H.  “Development of the Negro Press, 1827-1948.” PhD dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1948.

Fenderson, Lewis H.  “The Negro Press as a Social Instrument.”  Journal of Negro Education 20:2 (Spring 1951): 181-188.

Fielder, Brigitte, and Jonathan Senchyne, eds. Against a Sharp White Background: Infrastructures of African American Print.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2019.

Finkle, Lee. Forum for Protest: The Black Press During World War II. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1975.

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher, and Carla L. Peterson.  “We Holds These Truths to be Self-Evident: The Rhetoric of Frederick Douglass’s Journalism.”  In Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays, Eric Sundquist,ed.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Fleener, Nickieann.  “Breaking Down Buyer Resistance: Marketing the 1935 Pittsburgh Courier to Mississippi Blacks.”  Journalism History 13:3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1986): 78-85.

Forss, Amy Helene.  Black Print With a White Carnation: Mildred Brown and the Omaha Star Newspaper, 1938-1989.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014.

Foster, Frances Smith.  “A Narrative of the Interesting Origins and (Somewhat) Surprising Developments of African-American Print Culture.”  American Literary History 17:4 (Winter 2005): 714-740.

Foster, Frances Smith. “Genealogies of Our Concerns, Early (African) American Print Culture, and Transcending Tough Times.” American Literary History 22 (Summer 2010): 368–380.

Foster Greene, Debra.  “Published in the Interest of Colored People: The St. Louis Argus Newspaper in the 20th Century.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2003.

Franklin, Vincent P.  “The Voice of the Black Community: The Philadelphia Tribune, 1912-1941.”  Pennsylvania History 51:4 (October 1984): 261-284.

Fraser, Gordon. “Emancipatory Cosmology: Freedom’s Journal, The Rights of All, and the Revolutionary Movements of Black Print Culture.” American Quarterly 68:2 (2016): 263-286.

Frisken, Amanda K.  “A Song Without Words: Anti-Lynching Imagery in the African-American Press, 1889-1898.”  Journal of African-American History 97:3 (Summer 2012): 240-269.

Fultz, Michael. “‘The Morning Cometh’:  African-American Periodicals, Education, and the Black Middle Class, 1900-1930.” Journal of Negro History 80:3 (Summer 1995): 97-112.

Gallon, Kim T. “Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925–1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Gallon, Kim.  “Silences Kept: The Absence of Gender and Sexuality in Black Press Historiography.” History Compass 10:2 (February 2012): 207-218.

Gallon, Kim.  Pleasure in the News: African American Readership and Sexuality in the Black Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2020.

Gardner, Eric.  Black Print Unbound: The Christian Recorder, African American Literature, and Periodical Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Gershenhorn, Jerry.  “Double V in North Carolina: The Carolina Times and the Struggle of Racial Equality during World War II.”  Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 156-167.

Gershenhorn, Jerry. “A Courageous Voice for Black Freedom: Louis Austin and the Carolina Times in Depression-Era North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 87 (January 2010): 57–92.

Gershenhorn, Jerry.  Louis Austin and the Carolina Times: A Life in the Long Black Freedom Struggle.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.

Gershenhorn, Jerry.  Louis Austin and the Carolina Times: A Life in the Long Black Freedom Struggle.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.

Glick, Josh.  “Mixed Messages: D. W. Griffith and the Black Press, 1916-1931.”  Film History 23 (2011): 174-195.

Goeser, Caroline. Picturing the New Negro: Harlem Renaissance Print Culture and Modern Black Identity.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2006.

Gooden, Amoaba.  “Visual Representations of Feminine Beauty in the Black Press, 1915-1950.”  Journal of Pan-African Studies 4:4 (2011): 81-96.

Gordon, Eugene. “The Negro Press.” Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 140 (November 1928): 248-256.

Gore, George W., Jr.  Negro Journalism: An Essay on the History and Present Conditions of the Negro Press.  Greencastle, Ind.: Journalism Press, 1922.

Grant, Nicholas. “The Negro Digest: Race, Exceptionalism, and the Second World War.” Journal of American Studies52:2 (2018): 358-389.

Greenidge, Kerri K.  Black Radical: The Life and Times of William Monroe Trotter.  New York: Liveright, 2019.

Greer, Brenna Wynn.  Represented: The Black Imagemakers Who Reimagined African American Citizenship.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.

Griffin, Willie James. “News and Views of the Postal Service: Trezzvant W. Anderson and Black Labor Journalism in the New Deal Era.” Labor: Studies in Working-Class Histories of the Americas 15:1 (March 2018): 53-65.

Grose, Charles W.  “Black Newspapers in Texas, 1868-1970.”  MA thesis, University of Texas, 1972.

Grossman, James R.  “Blowing the Trumpet: The Chicago Defender and Black Migration During World War I.” Illinois Historical Journal 78:2 (Summer 1985): 82-96.

Green, Adam.  Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Guthrie, Ricardo Antonio. “Examining Political Narratives of the Black Press in the West: Dr. Carlton B. Goodlet and the San Francisco Sun-Reporter (1950s–1960s).”  PhD dissertation, University of California- San Diego, 2006.

Guven, Erdem.  “The Image and the Perception of the Turk in Freedom’s Journal,” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 191-199.

Hall, Calvin L.  African-American Journalists: Autobiography and Memoir and Manifesto.  Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2009.

Hall, Nora D.  “On Being an African-American Woman:  Gender and Race in the Writings of Six Black Women Journalists, 1894-1936.” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.

Haram, Kerstyn M. “The Palmetto Leader’s Mission to End Lynching in South Carolina: Black Agency and the Black Press in Columbia, 1925–1940.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 107 (October 2006): 310–33.

Harlan, Louis R.  “Booker T. Washington and the Voice of the Negro, 1904-1907.”  Journal of Southern History 45 (February 1979): 45-62.

Haywood, D’Weston.  Let Us Make Men: The Twentieth-Century Black Press and a Many Vision for Racial Advancement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.

Heitner, Devorah.  Black Power TV.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.

Hellwig, David J.  “The Afro-American Press and US Involvement in Cuba, 1902-1912.”  Mid-American 72 (April/July 1990): 135-145.

Hill, George H.  Black Media in America: A Resource Guide.  Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1984.

Hill, Roy L.  Who’s Who in the American Negro Press.  Dallas: Royal Publishing Co., 1960.

Hirsch, Paul M. “An Analysis of Ebony: The Magazine and Its Readers.” Journalism Quarterly 45 (Summer 1968): 261-270.

Hodges, Graham Russell Gao, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Hogan, Lawrence D.  A Black National News Service: The Associated Negro Press and Claude Barnett, 1915-1945. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.

Horne, Gerald.  The Rise and Fall of the Associated Negro Press: Claude Barnett’s Pan-African News and the Jim Crow Paradox.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton.  In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community, and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1800-1860.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Howard-Pitney, David.  “Calvin Chase’s Washington Bee and Black Middle-Class Ideology, 1882-1900.”  Journalism Quarterly 63 (1986): 89-97.

Howard-Pitney, David.  “The Enduring Black Jeremiad: The American Jeremiad and Black Protest Rhetoric from Frederick Douglass to W.E.B. DuBois, 1841-1919.”  American Quarterly 38 (1986): 481-192.

Huddle, Mark A., Ed. Roi Ottley’s World War II: the Lost Diary of an African American Journalist. (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2011)

Hughes, Langston.  Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender: Essays on Race, Politics, and Culture 1942-1962.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Hughey, Matthew.  “Black Aesthetics and Panther Rhetoric: A Critical Decoding of Black Masculinity in The Black Panther, 1967-80.” Critical Sociology 35:1 (2009): 29-56.

Hutton, Frankie.  “Social Morality in the Antebellum Black Press.”  Journal of Popular Culture 26 (Fall 1992): 71-84.

Hutton, Frankie.  The Early Black Press in America, 1827-1860. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Hyman, Mark J.  “Afrocentric Leanings of Black Church Owned Newspapers from Mid-Nineteenth Century to World War I.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 1991.

Jackson, Debra.  “A Cultural Stronghold: The Anglo-African Newspaper and the Black Community of New York.”  New York History 85 (Fall 2004): 331-357.

Jacobs, Donald M., ed.  Antebellum Black Newspapers.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.  (Indices to Freedom’s Journal, The Weekly Advocate, and The Rights of All)

James, Winston.  The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799-1851.  New York: New York University Press, 2010.

James, Winston. “Letters from London in Black and Red: Claude McKay, Marcus Garvey, and the Negro World.” History Workshop Journal 185 (Spring 2018): 281-293.

Jin-Ping, Wu.  Frederick Douglass and the Black Liberation Movement: The North Star of American Blacks.  New York: Garland, 2000.

Johnson, Abby A., and Ronald M. Johnson.  “Away from Accommodation: Radical Editors and Protest Journalism, 1900-1910.”  Journal of Negro History 62:4 (October 1977): 325-338.

Johnson, Abby Arthur, and Ronald M. Johnson.  Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the 20th Century.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.

Johnson, Charles S.  “The Rise of the Negro Magazine.” Journal of Negro History 13 (January 1928): 7-21.

Johnson, James Wesley.  “The Associated Negro Press: A Medium of International News and Information, 1919-1967.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1976.

Jones, Allen W.  “The Black Press and the New South: Jesse C. Duke’s Struggle for Justice and Equality.”  Journal of Negro History 64 (1979): 221-225.

Jones Ross, Felicia G.  “Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers’ Response to the Great Migration.” Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 1994): 531-539.

Jones Ross, Felecia G. “The Brownsville Affair and the Political Values of Cleveland Black Newspapers.” American Journalism 12:2 (1995): 107-122.

Jones, Felecia G., and Joseph P. McKerns.  “Depression in the Promised Land: The Chicago Defender Discourages Migration, 1929-1940.”  American Journalism 21:1 (Winter 2004): 55-73.

Jones, Jeannette Eileen.  “The Negro’s Peculiar Work: Jim Crow and Black Discourses on US Empire, Race, and the African Question, 1877-1900.”  Journal of American Studies 52:2 (May 2018): 330-357.

Jones Ross, Felicia.  “The Cleveland Call and Post and the Election of Carl B. Stokes.”  Journalism History 33:4 (Winter 2008): 215-223.

Jones, Jeannette Eileen.  “The Negro’s Peculiar Work: Jim Crow and Black Discourses on US Empire, Race, and the African Question, 1877-1900.”  Journal of American Studies 52:2 (May 2018): 330-357.

Jordan, William G.  Black Newspapers and America’s War For Democracy, 1914-1920.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Kennedy Haydel, Sheryl. “For Country, Culture, and Respect: The Bennett Banner’s Use of Journalism to Promote Equality from a Black Feminist Perspective.” Journalism History 47:4 (2021): 309-332.

Kennedy Haydel, Sheryl. “We Are Nobody’s Fools: The Radicalization of the Hampton Script from 1930-1959 to Advance Black Activism.” American Journalism 38:3 (2021): 319-341.

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Kiuchi, Yuya.  Struggles for Equal Voice: The History of African American Media Democracy.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012. 

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Klotman, Phyllis R., and Janet K. Kutler, eds.  Struggles for Representation: African American Documentary Films and Video.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Kobre, Sidney, and Reva H. Kobre.  A Gallery of Black Journalists Who Advanced Their Race.  Hampton, VA: United Brothers and Sisters Communications, 1993.

Kong-Chow, Janet.  “The Mound Bayou Demonstrator: Black Memory at the Margins and the Means of Cultural Production.” American Studies 59:3 (2020): 13-31.

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Kornweibel, Theodore, Jr.  “The Most Dangerous of all Negro Journals: Federal Efforts to Suppress the Chicago Defender During World War I.”  American Journalism 11:2 (Spring 1994): 257-269.

Kreiling, Albert.  “The Making of Racial Identities in the Black Press: A Cultural Analysis of Race Journalism in Chicago, 1878-1928.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

Lamphere, Lawrence.  “Paul Robeson, Freedom Newspaper, and the Black Press.”  PhD dissertation, Boston College, 2003.

Langer Cohen, Lara, and Jordan Alexander Stein, eds. Early African American Print Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.

Lawson, Marjorie McKenzie.  “The Adult Education Aspects of the Negro Press.”  Journal of Negro Education 14:3 (Summer 1945): 431-436.

Lavette, Lavaille.  Ebony Covering Black America.  New York: Rizzoli, 2021.

Leipold, L. E.  Cecil E. Newman, Newspaper Publisher.  Minneapolis: Denison, 1969.  (Minneapolis Spokesman and St. Paul Recorder)

Lemons, J. Stanley and Diane Lambert.  “John Carpenter Minkins: Pioneering African-American Newspaperman.” New England Quarterly 76:3 (2003): 413-438.

Long, Nia.  “Seeking a Place in the Sun: Sepia Magazine’s Endeavor for Quality Journalism and Place in the Negro Market, 1951-1982.” PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2011.

Lumsen, Linda.  “Good Mothers With Guns: Framing Black Womanhood in the Black Panther, 1968-1980.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 86:4 (Winter 2009): 900-922.

Long, Mia Chandra. “Seeking a Place in the Sun: Sepia Magazine’s Endeavor for Quality Journalism and Place in the Negro Market, 1951–1982.”  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2011. 

McCaffrey, Raymond.  “From Baseball Icon to Crusading Columnist: How Jackie Robinson Used His Column in the African-American Press to Fight for Civil Rights in Sports.” Journalism History 46:3 (2020): 185-207.

McCluskey, Audrey T.  “Representing the Race:  Mary McLeod Bethune and the Press in the Jim Crow Era.” Western Journal of Black Studies 23:4 (Winter 1999): 236-245.

McGhee, Flora A. C.  “Mississippi Black Newspapers:  Their History, Content, and Future.” PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1985.

McHenry, Elizabeth. “Out of the Business Once Established Could Grow Various Enterprises: W.E.B. DuBois and the Ed. L. Simon & Co. Printers.” Book History 24:2 (2021): 405-450.

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McLeod, Yanela G.  The Miami Times and the Fight for Equality: Race, Sport, and the Black Press, 1948-1959.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019.

McMillen, Neil R.  “Black Journalism in Mississippi: The Jim Crow Years.” Journal of Mississippi History 49:2 (May 1987): 129-138.

Mace, Darryl.  In Remembrance of Emmett Till: Regional Stories and Media Responses to the Black Freedom Struggle.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.

Magliulo, Myrna Colette. “Andrew J. Smitherman: A Pioneer of the African American Press, 1909–1961.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 34 (July 2010): 119–153.

Mangun, Kimberley.  “Boosting the Bottom Line: Beatrice Morrow Cannady’s Tactics to Promote The Advocate, 1923-1933.” American Journalism 25:3 (Summer 2008): 31-69. 

Mangun, Kimberly.  “Editor A.D. Griffin: Envisioning a New Age for Black Oregonians (1896-1907).” American Journalism 26:3 (Summer 2009):  55-92.

Mangun, Kimberley and Jeremy J. Chatelain. “For ‘the cause of civil and religious liberty’: Abner Cole and the Palmyra, NY, Reflector (1829-1831).” American Journalism 32:2 (Summer 2015): 184-205.

Marks, George P., ed.  The Black Press Views American Imperialism (1898-1900).  New York: Arno Press, 1971.

Matthews, John M.  “Black Newspapermen and the Black Community in Georgia, 1890-1930.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 68 (Fall 1984): 356-381.

Meier, August.  “Booker T. Washington and the Negro Press: With Special Reference to the Colored American Magazine.”  Journal of Negro History 38 (January 1953): 67-90.

Melancon, Kristi R, and Petra Munro Hendry. “Listen to the Voice of Reason: The New Orleans Tribune as Advocate for Public, Integrated Education.” History of Education 44:3 (2015): 293-315.

Michaeli, Ethan.  The Defender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America from the Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama.  New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016.

Mikel, Daniel P.  “A History of Negro Newspapers in Minnesota, 1876-1963.” M.Ed., Macalester College, 1963.

Millett, Maya.  “The Heroines of America’s Black Press.” New York Review of Books online.  24 November 2019.   (

Mindich, David T.Z. “Understanding Frederick Douglass: Toward a New Synthesis Approach to the Birth of Modern American Journalism.” Journalism History 26:1 (Winter 2000): 15-22. 

Mislan, Cristina. “An Obedient Servant: Internationalizing and Capitalizing on Blackness in Marcus Garvey’s Negro World.” Journalism History 39:2 (2013): 115-125.

Mitchell, Patricia Pugh. “Negating the Nadir: ‘The Smoky City’ Newspaper Series as a Forum for Black Perspectives.”  Western Pennsylvania History 89 (Winter 2006-2007): 32-47. 

Morris, Burnis R.  Carter G. Woodson: History, the Black Press, and Public Relations.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2017.

Moses, Jennifer.  “Writing The Age: T. Thomas Fortune, the African American Press, and the Unfolding of Jim Crow America, 1880-1930.”  PhD dissertation, University of Delaware, 2012.

Muhammad, Baiyina W.  “‘What is Africa to Us’?  The Baltimore Afro American‘s Coverage of the African Diaspora, 1915-1941.” PhD dissertation, Morgan State University, 2004. 

Murphy, Sharon.  Other Voices: Black, Chicano, and American Indian Press. Dayton: Pflaum/Standard, 1974.

Murdock, David Horace.  “Some Business Aspects of Leading Negro Newspapers.”  PhD dissertation, University of Kansas, 1935.

Murray, Joshua M., and Ross K. Tangedal, eds.  Editing the Harlem Renaissance.  Clemson, SC: Clemson University Press, 2021.

Myrdal, Gunnar.  An American Dilemma. New York: Harper and Row, 1944.   pp. 908-924 on the black press

Neal, Diane.  “Seduction, Accommodation, or Realism?  Tabbs Gross and the Arkansas Freeman.”  Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48 (Spring 1989): 57-64.

Newmann. Mark.  Entrepreneurs of Profit and Pride: From Black Appeal to Radio Soul.  Westport: Praeger, 1988.

Newman, Richard, Patrick Rael, and Phillip Lapsansky, eds.  Pamphlets of Protest: An Anthology of Early African-American Protest Literature, 1790-1860.  New York: Routledge, 2000.

Newman, Richard.  “Protest in Black and White: The Formation and Transformation of an African American Political Community During the Early Republic,” in Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds.  Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

O’Kelly, Charlotte G.  “The Black Press and the Black Protest Movement: A Study of the Response of Mass Media to Social Change, 1946-1972.” PhD dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1975.

Page, Yolanda Williams, ed.  Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers.  2 vols.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.

Parascandola, Louis J., ed.  Amy Jacques Garvey:  Selected Writings from the Negro World.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2016.

Paz, Dennis G.  “John Albert Williams and Black Journalism in Omaha, 1895-1929.”  Midwest Review 10 (Spring 1988): 14-32.

Peeples, Matthew.  “Creating Political Authority: The Role of the Antebellum Black Press in the Political Mobilization and Empowerment of African-Americans.”  Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 76-86.

Peplow, Michael.  George S. Schuyler.  Boston: Twayne, 1980.

Perry, Earnest Lee, Jr.  “Voice of Consciousness: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association During World War II.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1998.

Perry, Earnest L., Jr.  “A Common Purpose: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association’s Fight for Equality During World War II.”  American Journalism 19 (Spring 2002): 31-43.

Perry, Earnest.  “We Want In:  The African-American Press’s Negotiation for a White House Correspondent.”  American Journalism 20 (Summer 2003): 31-47.

Pietila, Antero, and Stacy Spaulding.  “The Afro-American’s World War II Correspondents: Feulletonism as Social Action.”  Literary Journalism Studies 5:2 (Fall 2013): 37-58.

Pinnick, Timothy N.  Finding and Using African-American Newspapers.  Wyandotte, OK: Gregath Publishing, 2008.

Pride, Armistad S.  A Register and History of Negro Newspapers in the United States, 1827-1950.  Ann Arbor: University Microfilm, 1979.

Pride, Armistad S. and Clint C. Wilson. A History of the Black Press. Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1997.

Rathbun, Betty Lou K.  “The Rise of the Modern American Negro Press, 1880-1914.”  PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Buffalo, 1979.

Reisler, Jim.  Black Writers- Black Baseball: An Anthology of Articles from Black Sportswriters who Covered the Negro Leagues.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.

Rhodes, Jane. “Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press.”  Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):95-106.

Rhodes, Jane.  Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Robinson, Shanta R.  “Crusader and Advocate: The Black Press, the Scopes Trial, and Educational Progress.”  Journal of Negro Education 87:1 (Winter 2018): 5-21.

Roiland, Joshua M.  “Just People are Just People: Langston Hughes and the Populist Power of African American Literary Journalism.”  Literary Journalism Studies 5:2  (Fall 2013): 15-35.

Rooks, Noliwe M.  Ladies’ Pages: African American Women’s Magazines and the Culture that Made Them.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Ross, Felicia Jones.  “The Cleveland Call and Post and the New Deal: A Change in African-American Thought.” Journalism History 19:3 (Autumn 1993):87-92 .

Ross, Felicia Jones.  “Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers’ Response to the Great Migration.”  Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Fall 1994): 531-539.

Ross, Felicia Jones.  “Fragile Equality: A Black Paper’s Portrayal of Race Relations in late 19th Century Cleveland.”  Howard Journal of Communications 6: 1/2 (October 1995): 53-68.

Ross, Felicia Jones. “The Brownsville Affair and the Political Values of Cleveland’s Black Newspapers.”  American Journalism 12:2 (1995): 107-22. 

Ross, Felicia Jones.  “Black Press Scholarship: Where We Have Been, Where We Are, and Where We Need to Go.” American Journalism 37:3 (Summer 2020): 301-320.

Sarr, Amanda.  Black Arkansas Newspapers, 1869-1975: A Check List.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1975.

Savage, Barbara Diane.  Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War and the Politics of Race, 1939-1948.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Schechter, Patricia A.  Ida B. Well-Barnett and American Reform, 1880-1930.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Schippers, Julie Kathleen. “The Evolution of African American Consciousness in 1917: The Black Press’s Response to the East St. Louis Riot.” PhD dissertation, Truman State University, 2001.

Schneider, Mark R. “The Colored American and Alexander’s: Boston’s Pro-Civil Rights Bookerites.”  Journal of Negro History 80:4 (Autumn 1995): 157-169.

Scott, Michelle R.  “To Help Enlighten Our People: ‘Theater Folk’ and Stage Advice Columns in the 1920s Chicago Defender.” American Studies 59:3 (2020): 55-76.

Sealander, Judith.  “Antebellum Black Press Images of Women.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 6 (Fall 1982): 159-165.

Searcy, Jennifer. “The Voice of the Negro: African American Radio, WVON, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Chicago.” PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 2013.

Shelton, Vanessa. “Interpretive Community and the Black Press: Racial Equality and Politics in The St. Louis American and The St. Louis Argus, 1928–1956.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 2007.   

Shott, Brian. “Forty Acres and a Carabao: T. Thomas Fortune, Newspapers, and the Pacific’s Unstable Color Lines.” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 17:1 (January 2018): 98-120.

Shott, Brian.  Mediating America: Black and Irish Press and the Struggle for Citizenship, 1870-1914.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2019.

Siddons, Louise. “Red Power in the Black Panther: Radical Imagination and Intersectional Resistance at Wounded Knee.” American Art 35:2 (Summer 2021): 2-31.

Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: The Quest for Civil Rights in the Roosevelt Era.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Slagle, Mark.  “Mightier Than the Sword? The Black Press and the End of Racial Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1948–1954.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2010.

Smethurst, James, and Rachel Rubin. “The Cartoons of Ollie Harrington, the Black Left, and the African American Press During the Jim Crow Era.” American Studies 59:3 (2020): 121-141.

Snorgrass, J. William. “The Baltimore Afro-American and the Election Campaigns of FDR.”  American Journalism 1:2 (1984): 35-50. 

Snorgrass, J. William, and Gloria T. Woody.  Blacks and Media: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography, 1962-1982.  Tallahassee: Florida A&M University Press, 1985.

Snorgrass, J. William. “The Black Press and Political Alliances: The Turning Point, 1928.” Western Journal of Black Studies 10:3 (Fall 1986): 103-108.

Spires, Derrick R.  The Practice of Citizenship: Black Politics and Print Culture in the Early United States.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.

Spires, Derrick R.  “Aliened Americans: Pseudonymity and Gender Politics in Early Black Social Media.” African American Review 55:1 (Spring 2022): 33-49.   The Alienated American, 1850s.

Squires, David. “Outlawry: Ida B. Wells and Lynch Law.” American Quarterly 67:1 (2015): 141-163.

Stein, Meyer L.  Blacks in Communications: Journalists, Public Relations, and Advertising.  New York: J. Messner, 1972.

Stevens, John D.  “The Black Press Looks at 1920s Journalism.”  Journalism History 7: 3/4 (Autumn-Winter 1980): 109-113.

Stevens, John D. “The Black Press and the 1936 Olympics.”  American Journalism 14:1 (1997): 97-102. 

Stevens, Summer E., and Owen V. Johnson.  “From Black Politics to Black Community: Harry C. Smith and the Cleveland Gazette.”  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 1090-1102.

Stovall, Mary E.  “The Chicago Defender in the Progressive Era.”  Illinois Historical Journal 83:3 (Autumn 1990): 159-172.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Economic Conditions Surrounding 19th Century African American Women Journalists: Two Case Studies.” Journalism History 18 (January 1992): 33-40.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  Raising Her Voice: African American Women Journalists Who Changed History.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Strother, T. Ella.  “The Black Image in the Chicago Defender, 1905-1975.”  Journalism History 4:4 (1977-78): 137-141, 156.

Suggs, Henry L., ed.  The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Suggs, Henry, L. ed.  The Black Press in the South, 1865-1983.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Suggs, Henry Lewis.  “The Response of the African American Press to the United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Journal of African American History 87 (Winter 2002): 70-82.

Sullins, William S., and Paul Parsons.  “Roscoe Dunjee: Crusading Editor of Oklahoma’s Black Dispatch, 1915-1955.”  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992):204-213. 

Taylor, David V. “John Quincy Adams:  St. Paul Editor and Black Leader.” Minnesota History 43:8 (1973): 282-296.

Teel, Leonard Ray. “W.A. Scott and the Atlanta World.”  American Journalism 6:3 (1989): 158-78. 

Teel, Leonard Ray. “The African-American Press and the Campaign for a Federal Antilynching Law, 1933-34.”  American Journalism 8:2-3 (1991): 84-107. 

Teel, Leonard Ray. “The Jazz Rage: Carter G. Woodson’s Culture War in the African-American Press.”  American Journalism 11:4 (1994): 348-58. 

Teresa, Carrie.  “We Needed a Booker T. Washington…and Certainly a Jack Johnson: The Black Press, Johnson, and the Issue of Representation, 1909-1915.”  American Journalism 32:1 (Winter 2015): 23-40.

Teresa, Carrie.  Looking at the Stars: Black Celebrity Journalism in Jim Crow America.  Lincoln: Bison Books, 2019.

Thompson, John Henry Lee.  “The Little Caesar of Civil Rights: Roscoe Dunjee in Oklahoma City, 1915-1955.”  PhD dissertation, Perdue University, 1990.  (editor of the Black Dispatch in Oklahoma City)

Thompson, Julius E.  Percy Greene and the Jackson Advocate: The Life and Times of a Radical Conservative Black Newspaperman, 1897-1977.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.

Thompson, Mark A.  “Space Race: African American Newspapers Respond to Sputnik and Apollo 11.” PhD dissertation, University of North Texas, 2007.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou. “American Negro Newspapers, 1880-1914.” Business History Review 40:4 (Winter 1965):  457-490

Thorton, Brian.  “Pleading Their Own Cause: Letters to the Editor and Editorials in Ten African-American Newspapers, 1929-30.”  Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 168-178.

Thornton, Brian, and William P. Cassidy. “Black Newspapers in 1968 Offer Panthers Little Support.” Newspaper Research Journal 29:1 (Winter 2008): 6-20.

Tillery Jr., Alvin Bernard, and Michell Chresfield.  “Model Blacks or ‘Ras the Exhorter’: A Quantitative Content Analysis of Black Newspapers’ Coverage of the First Wave of Afro-Caribbean Immigration to the United States.”  Journal of Black Studies 43:5 (July 2012): 545-570.

Tripp, Bernell Elizabeth.  Origins of the Black Press, New York, 1827-1842.  Northport, Ala.: Vision Press, 1992.

Tripp, Bernell E. “Black Women Journalists, 1825-1860.”  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 1993.

Turner, Jeffrey Alan. “Agitation and Accommodation in a Southern Black Newspaper: The Savannah Tribune, 1886-1915.” PhD dissertation, University of Georgia, 1993.

Tyler, Bruce.  “Zoot Suit Culture and the Black Press.”  Journal of American Culture 17 (Summer 1994): 21-34.

Umoren, Imaobong.  “We Americans Are Not Just American Citizens Any Longer:’ Eslanda Robeson, World Citizenship, and the New World Review in the 1950s.” Journal of Women’s History 30:4 (Winter 2018): 134-158.

Velloso, Carolina.  “Race Films and the Black Press: Representation and Resistance.” American Journalism 40:2 (2023): 192-214.

Vincent, Theodore G., ed.  Voices of a Black Nation: Political Journalism in the Harlem Renaissance.  San Francisco: Ramparts, 1973.

Vogel, Todd, ed.  The Black Press: New Literary and Historical Essays.  New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Wade-Giles, Gloria.  “Black Women Journalists in the South, 1880-1905.”  Callaloo 11-13 (February-October 1981): 138-151.

Wagner, Venise.  “Activity Among Negroes: Race Pride and a Call for Interracial Dialogue in California’s East Bay Region, 1920-31.”  Journalism History 35”2 (Summer 2009): 82-90.

Walck, Pamela E., and Emily Fitzgerald.  “Finding the ‘Cullud’ Angle: Evelyn Cunningham, ‘The Women,’ and Feminism on the Pages of the Pittsburgh Courier.” Journalism History 46:4 (2020): 339-357.

Walters, Enoch P.  American Diary: A Personal History of the Black Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Walters, Ronald G. “The Negro Press and the Image of Success: 1920-1939.”  Midcontinent American Studies Journal 11:2 (Fall 1970): 36-55.

Washburn, Patrick S.  A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government’s Investigation of the Black Press During World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Washburn, Patrick S. “The Black Press: Homefront Clout Hits a Peak in World War II.”  American Journalism 12:3 (1995): 359-66. 

Washburn, Patrick S.  The African American Press: Voices of Freedom.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2007.

Weaver, Billy L. “The Educative Role of Black Newspapers, 1920-1930.”   PhD dissertation, Indiana University, 1979.

Wells, Jonathan Daniel. “Printed Communities: Race, Respectability, and Black Newspapers in the Civil War Era West.” Journal of the Civil War Era 12:1 (March 2022): 54-79.

West Davidson, James.  They Say: Ida B. Wells and the Reconstruction of Race.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

West, E. James.  “A Hero to be Remembered: Ebony Magazine, Critical Memory, and the ‘Real Meaning’ of the King Holiday.” Journal of American Studies 52:2 (May 2018): 503-527.

West, E. James. “Ben Burns and the Boundaries of Black Print in Chicago, 1942-1954.” Journal of American Studies 53:3 (2019): 703-724.

West, E. James.  Ebony Magazine and Lerone Bennett Jr.: Popular Black History in Postwar America.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2020.

West, E. James.  “Johnson Publishing Company and the Search for a White Audience.” American Journalism 39:3 (Summer 2022): 293-314.

West, E. James.  A House for the Struggle: The Black Press and the Built Environment in Chicago. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2022.

Whitaker, Mark.  Smoketown: The Untold Story of the Other Great Black Renaissance.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018.   Sections on Robert L. Vann, the Pittsburgh Courier, and black reporters.

Williams, Nudie E. “The Black Press in Oklahoma: The Formative Years, 1889-1907.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 61:3 (Fall 1983): 308-319.

Wiggins, David K.  “Wendell Smith, the Pittsburgh Courier Journal and the Campaign to Include Blacks in Organized Baseball, 1933-1945.” Journal of Sport History 10:2 (Summer 1983): 5-29.

Williams, Gilbert A.  “The Role of the Christian Recorder in the African Emigration Movement, 1854-1902.”  Journalism Monographs 111 (April 1989).

Williams, Gilbert A.  Legendary Pioneers of Black Radio.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

Williams, Megan E.  “Meet the Real Lena Horne: Representations of Lena Horn in Ebony Magazine, 1945-1949.” Journal of American Studies 43:1 (April 2009): 117-130.

Williams, Megan E.  “Lena’s Not the Only One: Representations of Lena Lorne and Etta Moten in the Kansas City Call.” American Studies 51: 1/2 (Spring/Summer 2010): 49-67.

Wilson, Clint C.  Black Journalists in Paradox: Historical Perspectives and Current Dilemmas.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Wolseley, Roland E.  The Black Press: U.S.A.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram.  Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery.  New York: Atheneum, 1971.

Yingling, Charlton W.  “No One Who Reads the History of Hayti Can Doubt the Capacity of Colored Men: Racial Formation and Atlantic Rehabilitation in New York City’s Early Black Press, 1827-1841.” Early American Studies 11:2 (Spring 2013): 314-348.

Young, Sandra S.  “A Different Journey: John Brown Russwurm, 1799-1851.”  PhD dissertation, Boston College, 2004.

Zackodnik, Teresa.  Press, Platform, Pulpit: Black Feminist Publics in the Era of Reform. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2011.

Zackodnik, Teresa.  “Memory, Illustration, and Black Periodicals: Recasting the Disappearing Act of the Fugitive Slave in the ‘New Negro’ Woman.” American Periodicals 25:2 (2015): 139-159.

Indigenous American Press and Broadcasting

Bearor, Karen A.  “The Illustrated American and the Lakota Ghost Dance.” American Periodicals 21:2 (2011): 143-163.

Bertaud-Gandar, Rhiannon.  “Laying Claim: Framing the Occupation of Alcatraz in the Indians of All Tribes Newsletter.” Australasian Journal of American Studies 35: 1 (July 2016): 125-142.

Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed.  Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture.  Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

Coward, John M.  “Explaining the Little Bighorn: Race and Progress in the Native Press.”  Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 1974): 540-549. 

Coward, John M. “Promoting the Progressive Indian: Lee Harkins and The American Indian Magazine.” American Journalism 14, no. 1 (1997): 3–18.

Coward, John M. The Newspaper Indians: Native American Identity in the Press, 1820-1890. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Coward, John M. “Indian Ideology in The Warpath: Lehman Brightman’s Red Power Journalism.” American Journalism40:3 (2023): 268-289.

Emery, Jacqueline A. “Writing against Erasure: Native American Boarding School Students and the Periodical Press, 1880–1920.”  PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2011.

Emery, Jacqueline.  “Minding Boarding School Newspapers for Native American Women Editors and Writers.” American Periodicals 27:1 (2017): 11-15.

Emery, Jacqueline, ed.  Recovering Native American Writings in the Boarding School Press.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018.

Garrett-Davis, Josh.  “The Intertribal Drum of Radio: The Indians for Indians Hour and Native American Media, 1941-1951.” Western Historical Quarterly 49:3 (Autumn 2018): 249-273.

Griffith, Jane.  Words Have a Past: The English Language, Colonialism, and the Newspapers of Indian Boarding Schools.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2019.  US and Canada 

Haller, Beth A. “Cultural Voices or Pure Propaganda? Publications of the Carlisle Indian School, 1879-1918.” American Journalism 19:2 (2002): 65-86.

Holland, Cullen Joe.  Cherokee Newspapers, 1828-1906: Tribal Voice of a People in Transition.  James P. Pate, ed.  Cherokee Heritage Press, 2015.

Huntziker, Alyssa A.  “Battlefield and Classroom: Indigenous Student-Soldiers and US Imperialism in the Carlisle Indian School Press.” American Periodicals 33:2 (2023): 152-171.

Jimenez, Carlos. “Antenna Dilemmas: The Rise of an Indigenous-Language Low-Power Radio Station in Southern California.” Journal of Radio & Audio Media 26: 2 (2019): 35-49.

Kim, Seonghoon.  “We Have Always Had These Many Voices: Red Power Newspapers and a Community of Poetic Resistance.” American Indian Quarterly 39:3 (Summer 2015): 271-301.

Lacourse, Richard.  “An Indian Perspective- Native American Journalism: An Overview.”  Journalism History 6 (1979): 34-38.

Littlefield, Daniel F., and James W. Parins.  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Loew, Patty. “Natives, Newspapers, and ‘Fighting Bob’: Wisconsin Chippewa in the ‘Unprogressive’ Era.”  Journalism History 23:4 (Autumn 1997): 149-158.

Murphy, James E. and Sharon M. Murphy. Let My People Know: American Indian Journalism, 1828-1978. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.

Murphy, Sharon.  “Neglected Pioneers: 19th Century Native American Newspapers.”  Journalism History 4 (Autumn 1977): 79-82.

Perdue, Theda, ed.  Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Alias Boudinot.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983.

Raineri Zuck, Rochelle. “Keep up the Fight: Indigenous Editorial Practices, Collaboration, and Networks of Exchange in the Early Twentieth Century.” American Periodicals 33:2 (2023): 119-135.

Riley, Sam G.  “Indian Journal, Voice of Creek Tribe, Now Oklahoma’s Oldest Newspaper.” Journalism Quarterly 59:1 (1982): 46-51.

Stanciu, Cristina, Oliver Scheiding, and Jill Doerfler. “You Could Speak the Truth with a Tongue of Fire: The Cultural and Political Work of Indigenous Periodicals.” American Periodicals 33:2 (2023): 93-118.

Trahant, Mark N.  Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A History of Native American Contributions to News Media.  Nashville: Freedom Forum Press, 1995.

Vallowe, Megan. “The Long Arm of the Phoenix in Nineteenth-Century Political Reprinting.”  American Periodicals 28:1 (2018): 41-55.     

Weston, Mary Ann.  Native Americans in the News: Images of Indians in the Twentieth Century Press.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Winnemucca Hopkins, Sarah.  The Newspaper Warrior: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins’s Campaign for American Indian Rights, 1864-1891.  Carolyn Sorioso and Cari M. Carpenter, eds.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.

Ethnic/Immigrant and Foreign Language Press

Anderson, Arlow William.  The Immigrant Takes his Stand: The Norwegian-American Press and Public Affairs, 1847-1952.  Northfield, Minn.: Norwegian-American Historical Association, 1953.

Arndt, Karl J., and May E. Olson.  German-American Newspapers and Periodicals, 1732-1955: History and Bibliography.  Heidelberg, GER: Quelle & Meyer, 1961.

Backlund, Jonas Oscar.  A Century of the Swedish-American Press.  Chicago, 1952.

Björk, Ulf Jonas. “Perhaps There Is Someone Who Wants to Know How We Live: ‘Public’ Immigrant Letters in Swedish-American Newspapers.” Swedish-American Historical Quarterly 56 (April-July 2005): 183–97.

Björk, Ulf-Jonas. “Find Wealth or Freeze to Death: The Swedish-American Press and the Klondike Gold Rush.” Swedish-American Historical Quarterly 64 (July 2013): 107–130.

Brinn, Ayelet Rose.  “Miss Amerike: The Yiddish Press’s Encounter with the United States, 1885-1924.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2019.

Brislin, Tom.  “Weep Into Silence/Cries of Rage: Bitter Divisions in Hawaii’s Japanese Press.” Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 154 (December 1995): 1-33.

Broadbent, T.L.  “The German Language Press in California: Record of a German Immigration.”  Journal of the West 10 (October 1971): 637-661.

Bytwerk, Randall L.  “Julius Streicher and the Early History of Der Sturmer, 1923-1933.”  Journalism History 5:3 (Autumn 1978): 74-79.

Capps, Finis Herbert.  From Isolation to Involvement: The Swedish Immigrant Press in America, 1914-1945.  Chicago: Swedish Pioneer Historical Society, 1966.

Cazden, Robert A.  A Social History of the German Book Trade in America to the Civil War.  Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1984.

Chang, Mei-Jen Angelica.  “Chinese Times: An Ethnic Newspaper in the United States.” PhD dissertation, University of Nevada-Reno, 1986.

Chroust, David Zdenek.  “Bohemian Voice: Contention, Brotherhood, and Journalism among Czech People in America, 1860–1910.” PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2009.

Clement Reed, Sarah. “The Only Norwegian Paper in Utah: Imagining Norwegian, American, and Mormon Identities in a Vernacular Periodical.” Norwegian-American Studies 39 (2021): 40-76.

Condray, Kethleen.  “Arkansas’s Bloody German-Language Newspaper War of 1892.”  Arkansas Historical Quarterly 74:4 (Winter 2015): 327-351.

Connolly-Smith, Peter.  Picturing America: An Immigrant Press Visualizes American Popular Culture, 1890-1918.  Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004.

Conolly-Smith, Peter.  “Transforming an Ethnic Readership Through Word and Image: William Randolph Hearst’s Deutsches Journal and New York’s German-Language Press, 1895-1918.”  American Periodicals 19:1 (2009): 66-84.

Cutter, Charles.  “The American Yiddish Daily Press Reaction to the Rise of Nazism, 1930-1933.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 1979.

Deak, Zoltan.  This Noble Flame: Portrait of a Hungarian Newspaper in the USA.  New York: Heritage Press, 1982.

Dolber, Brian. “Strange Bedfellows: Yiddish Socialist Radio and the Collapse of Broadcasting Reform in the United States, 1927-1938.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 33:2 (2013): 289-307.

Dolber, Brian, ed.  Media and Culture in the U.S. Jewish Labor Movement: Sweating for Democracy in the Interwar Era.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Dolmetsch, Christopher L.  The German Press of the Shenandoah Valley.  Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1984.

Edelman, Hendrick.  The Dutch Language Press in America.  Niewkoop:  De Graef Publishers, 1986.

Fondren, Elisabeth. “This is an American Newspaper: Editorial Opinions and the German Immigrant Press in 1917.” Media History 27:2 (2021): 210-223.

Geitz, Henry, ed., The German-American Press. Madison: Max Cade Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1992.

Hagy, N. W., and Van Ruynbeke, B. “The French Refugee Newspapers of Charleston.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 91 (1996): 29-46.

Hardt, Hanno.  “Foreign Language Press in American Press History: An Essay.”  Journal of Communication 39:3 (Spring 1989): 114-131.

Harmon, Steven W.  The St. Josephs-Blatt, 1896-1919.  New York: Peter Lang, 1989.

Hoffman, Matthew. “The Red Divide: The Conflict between Communists and Their Opponents in the American Yiddish Press.” American Jewish History 96 (March 2010): 1–31.

Hunter, Edward.  In Many Voices: Our Fabulous Foreign Language Press.  Norman Park, GA: Norman College, 1961.

Hutton, Frankie, and Barbara Straus Reed, eds.  Outsiders in 19th Century Press History: Multicultural Perspectives.  Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press, 1995.

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D. “‘Everybody Writes’: Readers and Editors and Their Interactions in the Polish-Language Press, 1922–1969.” Journal of American Ethnic History 33 (Fall 2013): 35–69.

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.  The Polish Hearst: Ameryka-Echo and the Public Role of the Immigrant Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Joyce, William Leonard.  Editors and Ethnicity: A History of the Irish-American Press, 1848-1883.  New York: Arno Press, 1976.  (reprint of Phd dissertation, University of Michigan, 1974)

Karlowich, Robert A. We Fall and Rise: Russian Language Newspapers in New York City, 1889-1914.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.

Kelman, Ari Y.  Station Identification: A Cultural History of Yiddish Radio in the United States.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

Kessler, Lauren.  The Dissident Press: Alternative Journalism in American History.  Beverley Hills: Sage Publications, 1984.

Kessler, Lauren.  “Fettered Freedoms: The Journalism of the World War II Japanese Internment Camp.”  Journalism History 15 (Summer-Autumn 1988).

Kieswetler, Renate.  “German American Labor Press: The Verbote and Chicago Arbiter-Zeitung.” in Harmut Kiel, ed., German Worker’s Culture in the United States. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.

Kim, Joey S. “Christian Conversion Through Racial Exclusion: The Oriental; or, Tung-Ngai San-Luk, the Second Chinese-Language Newspaper in the United States.” American Periodicals 31:2 (Fall 2021): 98-116.

Knight, Matthew.  “The Irish Republic: Reconstructing Liberty, Right Principles, and the Fenian Brotherhood.”  Eire-Ireland 52:3/4 (Fall/Winter 2017): 252-271.

Knight, Matthew. “Our Gaelic Department: The Irish-Language Column in the New York Irish-American, 1857-1896.” PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 2021.

Krysko, Michael A. “Gibberish On the Air: Foreign Language Radio and American Broadcasting, 1930-1940.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 27:3 (2007): 333-355.

Kubow, Magdalena.  “Polish-Jewish Relations As Reflected in the Pages of the Republika-Gornik, 1926-1930.”  The Polish Review 62:1 (2017): 19-59.

Lipinsky, Seth.  The Rise of Abraham Cahan.  New York: Schocken, 2013.

Lo, Karl, and H.M. Lai, eds.  Chinese Newspapers Published in North America, 1854-1875.  Washington DC: Center for Chinese Research Materials, 1976.

Lovoll, Odd S.  Norwegian Newspapers in America: Connecting Norway and the New Land.  Minneapolis: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2010.

Luther, Catherine A.  “Reflections of Cultural Identities in Conflict: Japanese American Internment Camp Newspapers During World War II.”  Journalism History 29:2 (Summer 2003): 69-81.

Marzolf, Marion.  “The Pioneer Danish Press in Midwest America, 1870-1900.”  Scandinavian Studies 48:4 (1976): 426-440.

Marzolf, Marion T.  The Danish Language Press in the United States.  New York: Arno Press, 1979.

McMahon, Cian.  “Ireland and the Birth of the Irish-American Press, 1842-61.” American Periodicals 19:1 (2009): 5-20.

McMahon, Cian T. “Caricaturing Race and Nation in the Irish American Press, 1870–1880: A Transnational Perspective.” Journal of American Ethnic History 33 (Winter 2014): 33–56.

Melendez, A. Gabriel.  Spanish-Language Newspapers of New Mexico, 1834-1958.  Mesa: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

Miller, Sally M., ed.  The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Mulcrone, Mick. “The Famine Irish and the Irish-American Press: Strangers in a Hostile Land.” American Journalism20:3 (2003): 49-72.

Nunez, Arturo Romero. “Freedom’s Journal and El Clamor Público: African American and Mexican American Cultural Fronts in Nineteenth Century Newsprint.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2010.

O’Connor, James V. “Resisting the Melting Pot Through Ethnic Newspapers: The History and Function of the Irish Echo.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2008.

Olszyk, Edmund G.  The Polish Press in America.  Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1940.

Olzak, Susan, and Elizabeth West.  “Ethnic Conflict and the Rise and Fall of Ethnic Newspapers.”  American Sociological Review 56:4 (August 1991): 458-474.

Park, Robert E.  The Immigrant Press and Its Control.  New York: Harper and Row, 1922.

Pasadeos, Yorgo.  “The Greek-American Press: A 90-Year Compendium.”  Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 140-44.

Popkova, Anna. “Imagining the Russian Community: Novoye Russkoe Slovo, the First Red Scare, and the Palmer Raiders, 1919-1920.” Journalism History 48:1 (2022): 41-60.

Portnoy, Edward A.  “The Creation of a Jewish Cartoon Space in the New York and Warsaw Yiddish Press, 1884–1939.”  PhD dissertation, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 2008.

Ramsden, Randi Julia.  “Shaping Identity.” Wisconsin Magazine of History 100:1 (Autumn 2016): 28-43.   (German-American newspapers in Wisconsin)

Reed, Barbara S.  “A History and Content Analysis of the Pioneer English-Language American Jewish Periodical Press, 1823-1858.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio University, 1987.

Reed, Barbara S.  “The Antebellum Jewish Press: Origins, Problems, Function.”  Journalism Monographs 139 (June1993).

Rhodes, Leara D. The Ethnic Press: Shaping the American Dream. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, 2010.

Rischer, Moses, ed.  Grandma Never Lived in America: The New Journalism of Abraham Cahan.  Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1985.

Robinson, Greg, ed.  Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Rost, Sean.  “The Missouri Jewish Press and the Ku Klux Klan.”  Shofar 35:2 (Winter 2017): 81-101.

Rowan, Steven. “The German Press in St. Louis and Missouri in the Nineteenth Century: The Establishment of a Tradition.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 99 (September 2005): 459–67.

Saalberg, Harvey.  “The Westliche Post of St. Louis: A Daily Newspaper for German-Americans, 1857-1938.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1967.

Saalberg, Harvey.  “The Westliche Post of St. Louis: German Language Daily, 1857-1938.”  Journalism Quarterly 45 (Autumn 1968): 452-456.

Salter, Sarah.  “Archival History and Forms of Surprise: Unraveling Italian American Newspaper Advertisements.”  American Periodicals 28:1 (2018): 56-72.

Schoone-Jongen, Robert. “Dateline Orange City, Iowa: De Volksvriend and the Creation of Dutch American Community in the Midwest, 1874–1951.” Annals of Iowa 69 (Summer 2010): 308–331.

Shott, Brian.  Mediating America: Black and Irish Press and the Struggle for Citizenship, 1870-1914.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2019.

Shapiro, Shelby Alan. “Words to the Wives: The Jewish Press, Immigrant Women, and Identity Construction, 1895–1925.”   PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

Shore, Elliot, et al., eds., The German-American Radical Press: The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.*

Silva, Noenoe K.  “Early Hawaiian Newspapers and Kanaka Maoli Intellectual History, 1834-1855.” Hawaiian Journal of History 42 (2008): 105-134.

Singleton, Brent D.  “The Moslem World: A History of America’s Earliest Islamic Newspaper and Its Successors.”  Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 27:2 (August 2007): 297-307.

Soltes, Mordecai.  The Yiddish Press: An Americanizing Agency.  New York: Arno Press, 1969.  (originally published in 1924)

Stone, Bryan Edward. “Edgar Goldberg and the Texas Jewish Herald: Changing Coverage and Blended Identity.”  Southern Jewish History 7 (2004): 71-108.

Straus Reed, Barbara. “Unity, Not Absorption: Robert Lyon and the Asmonean: The Origins of the First English-Language Jewish Weekly in the United States.” American Journalism 7:2 (1990): 77-95.

Theus, Kathryn T.  “From Orthodoxy to Reform: Assimilation and the Jewish-American Press of Mid-Nineteenth Century America.” American Journalism 1:2 (1983/1984): 15-26.

Thornton, Brian.  “The Dangerous Chicago Defender: A Study of the Newspaper’s Editorials and Letters to the Editor in 1968.” Journalism History 40:1 (Spring 2014): 40-50.

Trasciatti, Mary Ann.  “Framing the Sacco-Vanzetti Executions in the Italian American Press.”  Critical Studies in Media Communication 20:4 (December 2003): 407-430.

Van Tuyll, Debra Reddin, Mark O’Brien, and Marcel Broersma, eds.  Politics, Culture, and the Irish-American Press, 1784-1963.  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2021.

Vellon, Peter G.  A Great Conspiracy Against Our Race: Italian Immigrant Newspapers and the Construction of Whiteness in the Early 20th Century.  New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Warren, Jean-Philippe.  “The French Canadian Press in the United States.”  Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 7: 1-2 (2016): 74-95.

Whitfield, Stephen J.  “The ‘Golden Era’ of Civil Rights: Consequences of The Carolina Israelite.” Southern Cultures 14:3 (Fall 2008): 26-51.

Winship, George Parker.  “French Newspapers in the United States from 1790 to 1800.”  Papers of the Bibliographic Society of America 14:2 (1920) 82-91.

Wittke, Carl.  The German Language Press in America.  Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1957.

Zanoni, Elizabeth. “‘Per Voi, Signore’: Gendered Representations of Fashion, Food, and Fascism in Il Progresso Italo-Americano during the 1930s.” Journal of American Ethnic History 31 (Spring 2012): 33–71.

Zecker, Robert M. “‘Let Each Reader Judge’: Lynching, Race, and Immigrant Newspapers.” Journal of American Ethnic History 29 (Fall 2009): 31–66.

Spanish Language Press

Allen, Craig. Univision, Telemundo, and the Rise of Spanish-Language Television in the United States.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2020.

Casillas, Delores Inéz. “Sounds of Belonging: A cultural History of Spanish-Language Radio in the United States, 1922–2004.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 2006.   

Casillas, Dolores Inés. “Sounds of Surveillance: U.S. Spanish-Language Radio Patrols La Migra.” American Quarterly 63 (September 2011): 807–829.

Casillas, Dolores Inez.  ¡Sounds of Belonging! U.S. Spanish-Language Radio and Public Advocacy.  New York: NYU Press, 2014.

Fouts, Sarah.  “The Mafia, La Raza, and the Spanish-Language Press Coverage of the 1891 Lynchings in New Orleans.”  Journal of Southern History 83:3 (August 2017): 509-530.

Gruez, Kirsten Silva.  “Delta Desterrados: Antebellum New Orleans and the New World of Print Culture,” in Jon Smith and Deborah Cohn, eds. Look Away: The US South in the New World. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Gunckel, Colin.  “Thinking About La Raza: Photography, the Archive, and the Visualization of Protest.”  Aztlan 43:1 (Spring 2018): 177-194.

Gutierrez, Felix.  “Spanish-Language Media in America: Background, Resources, History.”  Journalism History 4 (Summer 1977): 34-41.

Havlin, Natalie. “Cultures of Migration: Race, Space, and the Politics of Alliance in U.S. Latina/o Print and Visual Culture, 1910–1939.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2011.

Kanellos, Nicolas, and Helvetia Martell.  Hispanic Periodicals in the United States: Origins to 1960.  Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2000.

Kent, Robert B., and Maura E. Huntz.  “Spanish-Language Newspapers in the United States.”  Geographical Review 86:3 (July 1996): 446-457.

Kreitz, Kelley.  “American Alternatives: Participatory Futures of Print from New York City’s Nineteenth-Century Spanish-Language Press.”  American Literary History 30:4 (Winter 2018): 677-702.

Lopez, Maria Montserra Feu.  “The U.S. Hispanic Flapper: Pelonas and Flapperismo in U.S. Spanish Language Newspapers, 1920-1929.”  Studies in American Humor 1:2 (2015): 192-217.

MacCurdy, Raymond R.  A History and Bibliography of Spanish-Language Newspapers and Magazines in Louisiana, 1808-1949.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1951.

McGovern, Eileen Marie. “From Valeria to Marti: Four Nineteenth-Century Cuban Émigré Newspapers.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 1990.

Martinez, Ana Luisa R.  “The Voice of the People:  Pablo Cruz, El Regidor, and Mexican American Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1888-1910.”  PhD dissertation, Texas Tech University, 2003.

Melendez, A. Gabriel.  So All is Not Lost: The Poetics of Print in Nuevomexicano Communities, 1834-1958.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

Melendez, A. Gabriel.  Spanish-Language Newspapers in New Mexico, 1834-1958.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

Meyer, Doris.  Speaking for Themselves: Neomexicano Cultural Identity and the Spanish-Language Press, 1880-1920.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

Nanello, Nicolas, and Helvetia Martell.  Hispanic Periodicals in the United States, Origins to 1960: A Brief History and Comprehensive Bibliography.  Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2000.

Paxman, Andrew.  “The Rise of U.S. Spanish-Language Radio from ‘Dead Airtime’ to Consolidated Ownership (1920s-1970s.” Journalism History 44:3 (Fall 2018): 174-186.

Reilly, Tom.  “A Spanish-Language Voice of Dissent in Antebellum New Orleans.” Louisiana History 23:4 (Fall 1982): 325-339.

Rivas-Rodriguez, Maggie.  “Ignacio E. Lorenzo: The Mexican Exile Who Conquered San Antonio and Los Angeles.”  American Journalism 21:1 (Winter 2004): 75-89.

Walraven, Edward Lee.  “Ambivalent Americans: Selected Spanish-Language Newspapers’ Response to Anglo Domination of Texas, 1830-1910.”  PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, 1999.

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